Which former school of psychologica thought thought that behaviorism fit with their beliefs very well and, in turn, never really died?
in behaviorism, it is thought that animal psychology is the product of what?
Who were the four general people (not antecendents) of the behaviorism movement?
Willard Small, John Watson, Charles Turner, Margaret Washburn
Who was Titchener's first doctoral student that was a female that wrote a catalyst of a book the changed functionalism to behaviorism?
margaret floy washburn
Who are the two antecedents to behaviorism?
Thordike and Pavlov
what book was the reason that thorndike wanted to go into psychology?
James' "Principals of Psychology"
(def.) - a term Thorndike used to describe how long it took, once animals were put inside a puzzle box, it took for them to get out (had to be motivated by food)
What is Connectionism also referred as?
(def.) - behavior reduced to S-R elements
The puzzle box created by Thorndike looked at two things. What were they?
number of errors and time lapse
(def.) - particularly present in the puzzle box; if an animal is doing really well, but then has a trial which takes them a long time
(def.) - very little improvement for a while and then they realize it during a random trial and are perfect every time after
(def.) - bond strengthens with each successful attempt (imagine a thicker arrow with each succesful attempt)
For Thorndike's law of effect, what could he NOT prove?
that dissatisfaction led to stamping out behavior
According to Thorndike, Among all the SR connections, which one will be the one that will occur in a given situation?
the strongest SR Connection
Which of Thorndike's laws (2) could he not figure out how to demonstrate in the laboratory?
law of exercise and readiness
What is an example of a state of readiness for a cat to get out of the puzzle box (Thorndike)?
What would we call Thorndikes "Law of Readiness" or "OK Reaction Law" today
What aspect of Thorndike's studies influenced Behaviorism?
(person) - totally dedicated to his work; beloved by graduate students; graduate students jealous of time others spent with him
Which antecedent was particularly vocal about disliking Stalin in papers, etc.
What didn't Stalin kill Pavlov?
Pavlov was creating control
Which antecedent had a famous temper?
What topic did Pavlov win a Nobel Peace Prize for?
(def.) - found by Pavlov; reflexes common to all members of a species (like salivating to food)
(def.) - found by Pavlov; reflexes that come about only through conditioning (salivating b/c of a bell)
When you reduce a drive... what happens? (Pavlov and Skinner)
habits are increased
Who developed the Tower of Silence?
What were Pavlov's three research areas?
function of coronary nerves; primary digestive glands; conditioned reflexes
Who, technically, would have been famous had the zeitgeist been right for Classical Conditioning
What topic was EB Twitmyer studying when he presented his thesis?
who discovered associated reflexes?
Vladimir M. Bekhterev
Which book by Watson launched Behaviorism?
Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It
Who reached out to comfort Watson when he was fired from academia
What is an example of a simple stimuli?
light waves striking retina
What are the three major topics of behaviorism?
instinct, emotion, and thought
Who counter conditioned little Albert and Peter?
to watson, thinking is really
silent talking to oneself
(def.) - Watson's view that it doesn't matter what is IN the child, that as long as they are healthy you can "train" them with any kind of ideal
(def.) - Watson's idea that thinking is not going on in your brain, but is going on in your body
peripheral view of thinking
What are the three stages of behaviorism?
watsonian, neo, socio
What are the three basic beliefs of neo-behaviorism?
core of psychology should be learning, conditioning accounts for most behavior, operationalism
What does socio-behaviorism get back to that was absent in the previous two stages of behaviorism?
Who did the bobo doll study in socio-behaviorism?
What did William McDougall argue over against Watson?
consciousness data is necessary
Who argued with Watson about the importance of data of consciousness?
What did William McDougall question about Watson's tenets?
human behavior is fully determined
What was William McDougall critical of among Watson's methods?
verbal report method
What was a key figure of neobehaviorism?
(def.) - the doctrine that a physical concept can be defined in precise terms relating to the set of operations or procedures by which it is determined
What were the two key purposes of neo behaviorism?
render language and terminology more objective and rid science of pseudo-problems
Who formed their own form of behaviorism after becoming dissatisfied with Watson's?
(def.) - by Tolman; behavior reeks of purpose or all behavior is directed toward some goal
What did Tolman add to the idea of S-R bond?
what are examples of intervening variables?
age, hunger, heredity, drives, etc.
Who is a strong precursor to cognitive psychology because of his idea of intervening variables?
(def.) - Tolman; markers within the environment that help us to find our way (ex: tillman in Clemson)
(def.) - Tolman; learning even when there is no reinforcement
Which law of Thorndike's did Tolman reject?
law of effect
(def.) - Tolman; a pattern of sign Gestalts
What was the main "subjects" for neo-behaviorism?
What was Clark Hull's major goal?
develop a mathematical equation to predict behavior
based on whose laws of conditioning was Hull interested in developing a theory of behavior?
(def.) - hull; method necessary for psychology to be a science
(def.) - stimulus arising from a state of tissue need that arouses or activates behavior
What is the only basis of reinforcement (Hull)
What is the symbol, according to Hull, for incentive?
(def.) - expected value of the reinforcer
According to Hull, what increased behavior/habit?
decrease drive and increase incentive
According to Hull, what decreased behavior/habit
reactive inhibition, conditioned inhibition, oscillating factor
(def.) - hull; increases whenever a behavior was emitted regardless of reinforcement or not. (like boredom or fatigue)
(def.) - occurred anytime a response was made and no reinforcement occured. Each unreinforced trial lead to a permanent decrease in the liklihood of behavior
(def.) - Hull; varies over time and from subject to subject. Somewhat of a copout admitting that was really hard to predict
What is the full behavioral equation by Hull?
habit X drive X incentive - reactive inhibition - conditioned inhibition - O
Who was referred to as a theoretical genius?
Who is the most frequently cited psychologist today?
What does BF Skinner NOT believe in?