What did caffeine and ethanol do to the heart rate of Daphnia?
caffine=speed it up
ehtanol= slowed it down
varies during the experiment
scientist measure inorder to determine if it changes in response to the independent variable (depends on independent)
average of all numbers
# that occurs the most
# in the middle
top # - lowest #
Solution used for testing polysaccharides
when there is a dark purple/blue/black
Name the 4 classes of biological molecules
Solution used for testing sugars(carb)
when there is an orange/red color
Solution for testing proteins
when there is violet color
Solution for testing lipids
brown paper test/vegetable oil test
when there is 1 layer
How to convert Celcius?
C*= 5/9 (F-32)
How to convert Fahrenheit?
Compound scope magnification equation
eyepiece mag X objective mag
N.A.= numerical apeture of objective lens
Value for diameter of field
How did temperature affect the rate of diffusion?
How did molecular weight affect the rate of diffusion?
net movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane
net movement of molecules from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration
Dialysis bags with distilled water
Dialysis bags with NaCl
Why did some bags gain weight?
water went in to the dialysis bag that was hypertonic compared to the hypotonic solution of dH20
Why did some bags lose weight?
water left the dialysis bag that had dH20 and were in a solution of NaCl so equalibruim was reached
Why did the salt soultion plasmolyze the Elodea in lab 5?
the salt soultion caused the Elodea to loss water and become wilted
What are enzymes and what do they do?
proteins that act as catalysts during chemical reactions
What are the enzymes,substrates and products used in the reaction in lab 6?
Enzyme: Catechol oxidase
Substrates: Catechol and O2
Products: Benzoquinone and H2O
How do temperature and pH affect the enzyme actvity for the enzyme used in lab 6?
without an enzyme being around the optimal pH and temp range the reaction rate would increase continually as the pH is lowered of increase as the pH is raised
How does measuring the CO2 production relate to respiration and fermentation in yeast, germinating beans, and crickets?
as each respirates they release 02
Aerobic respiration vs. fermentation
aerobic respiration needs O2 and fermentation can occur when O2 is lacking
What does heat of respiration represent?
heat loss during respiration
Bromthymol blue experiment (why did the plants have different levels of CO2 in light vs. dark)
more CO2 in dark because light causes photosynthesis which cause the release of more O2
How does chromatography work?
fibers of certain size which allow to migrate along the paper if they are more soluable in an appropriate solution
What are the 4 pigment bands?
grass-greenv (chl a.)
yellow-green (chl b.)
Phenomenon observed when an atom is excited by UV light and the electrons return to the ground state in two or more steps, emitting photons of lower frequency (often in the visible light spectrum) at each step.
What colors are useful for photosynthesis?
blue & red
yellow & green
Reflected vs. Absorbed
reflected is the light you see not the lights absorbed
Where is starch stored?
How does light vs. dark affect starch storage?
when in dark it uses all of starch therefore it doesnt store it
How does measuring 02 levels relate to photosynthesis?
more 02 produced = the more effective photosynthesis was
How does electrophoresis work?
seperate proteins based on charge
closer to the positive = the more normal it is
Sickle cell anemia
In lab 12 what caused DNA to percipitate?
What did it look like?
What cell barriers were disrupted to the get the DNA out of strawberries?
cell membrane and wall