A set of complex hierarchical departments agencies, commissions, and their staffs that exist to help a chief executive officer carry out his or her duties; may be private organizations of governmental units.
The firing of public-office holders of a defeated political party and their replacement with loyalists of a newly elected party.
Jobs, grants, or others special favors that are given as rewards to friends and political allies for their support.
Reform measure that created the Civil Service Commission to administer a partial merit system. The act classified the federal service by grades, to which appointments were made based on the results of a competitive examination; it made it illegal for federal political appointees to be required to contribute to a particular political party.
civil service system
the system created by civil service laws by which many appointments to the federal bureaucracy are made
the system by which federal service jobs are classified into grades or level, to which appointments are made in the basis of performance on competitive examinations
independent regulatory commission
An agency created by Congress that is generally concerned with a specific aspect of the economy
Major administrative units with responsibility for a broad area of government operations; departmental status usually indicates a predicament national interest in a particular governmental function, such as defense, commerce, or agriculture.
Business established by Congress to perform functions that can be provided by private business (postal service).
independent executive agency
Governmental unit that closely resembles a Cabinet department but has a narrower area of responsibility (such as the CIA) and is not part of any Cabinet department.
Law enacted in 1939 to prohibit civil servants from taking activist roles in partisan campaigns; this act prohibited federal employees from making political contributions, working for a particular party, or campaigning for a particular candidate.
Federal Employees Political Activities Act
1993 liberalization of the Hatch Act; federal employees are now allowed to run for office in nonpartisan elections and to contribute money to campaigns in partisan elections.
The process by which a law or policy is put into operation by the bureaucracy.
The relatively stable relationships and patterns of interaction that occur among an agency, interest groups, and congressional committees.
The loose and informal relationships that exist among a large number of actors who work in broad policy areas.
Working groups created to facilitate coordination of policy making and implementation across a host of governmental agencies.
The ability of bureaucratic to make choices concerning the best way to implement congressional intentions.
A quasi-legislative administrative process that has the characteristics of a legislative act.
Rules that govern the operation of a particular government program that have the force of law.
A quasi-judicial process in which a bureaucratic agency settles disputes between two parties in a manner similar to the way courts resolve disputes.
Rule or regulation issued by the president that has the effect of law; must be published in the Federal Register.