# CCDS 7th Grade Science Test: Work, Simple Machines, and Energy

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### Work

force that is being moved a certain distance measured in joules (J)

### Energy

the ability to do work

### Mechanical Energy

energy in an object because of its motion or position

### Potential Energy

related to the object's position; car balanced on a mountain top

### Kinetic Energy

energy an object has because it is moving; big truck moving faster than a small truck

### Electrical Energy

negatively charged energy flowing through a conductor

### Nuclear Energy

energy kept in a nucleus

### Thermal Energy

heat energy; energy related to the temperature of a substance; water boiling in a pot

### Sound Energy

energy traveling through mechanical waves; megaphone

### Convection

(thermal energy); is the transfer of heat in a fluid through CURRENTS

### Conduction

(thermal energy); is the transfer of heat from a warmer substance to a cooler substance through DIRECT CONTACT

(thermal energy); is the transfer of energy as electromagnetic waves (SUN). CAN OCCUR THROUGH EMPTY SPACE.

### Electromagnetic Energy

energy caused by negatively charged particles in motion;

### Energy Conversions

follows the Law of Conservation of energy; a form of energy turning into a different type of energy

### Law of Conservation of Energy

Energy cannot be created or destroyed

### Screw

an inclined plane with a cylinder wrapped around it

### Wedge

an inclined plane that moves and causes objects to either slpit or lift

### Wheel and Axle

a simple machine that is a shaft (axle) inserted through a wheel

### Inclined Plane

a simple machine that is a flat, sloping surface

### Pulley

a simple machine with wheel(s) with a rope wrapped around it

### Lever

a simple machine that is a bar balancing on a fulcrum

### Effort

force applied on a lever

load/resistance is the object being pushed up by the effort force

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