← Egypt Facts Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All Gifts of the Nile Fertile Soil from Flooding, Water for Irrigation, Food, Papyrus, etc. Location Northeastern Africa circa 3000 B.C. Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt by King Menes circa 5000 B.C. Settlement along the Nile Three Number of eras of Egyptian history Old Kingdom First of the eras of Egyptian history Middle Kingdom Era between the Old and the New Kingdoms New Kingdom Last of the eras of Egyptian history King Narmer King Menes' other name Rosetta Stone Stone that contained carved messages in hieroglyphics, Greek and demotic. Led to translation of ancient hieroglyphics. Ramses The Great Pharaoh; ruled for 67 years Tutankhamun Unimportant, but useful, Pharaoh King Tut Tutankhamun's nickname Hatshepsut First female pharaoh Alexander Greek conquerer of Egypt (circa 300 B.C.) Ptolemy Alexander's general who made himself pharaoh, and started Ptolemaic Dynasty 31 B.C. Rome conquers Egypt Pyramids Architectural structures built during Old Kingdom Sphinx Large stone statue with the body of a lion and the head of a pharaoh, located at Giza Mummification Preservation of body for the afterlife Polytheistic Religious beliefs of the ancient Egyptians Monotheism One-godded religion started by Pharaoh Akhenaton during New Kingdom Papyrus First paper used for writing Peasants Builders of pyramids (not slaves) Achievements Calendar, architecture, medicine, geometry, writing, etc.