Nutrition Exam 4

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What is a precursor?

a. A conditionally essential vitamin
b. A sign or symptom of a vitamin deficiency disorder
c. A substance that is used to synthesize another compound
d. A substance that is recycled through the liver and intestines

c. A substance that is used to synthesize another compound

What is meant by the bioavailability of a vitamin in food?

a. The total amount available from plant and animal food
b. The amount absorbed and subsequently used by the body
c. The amount that escapes destruction from food processing
d. The number of different chemical forms of the same vitamin

b. The amount absorbed and subsequently used by the body

General characteristics of the water-soluble vitamins include all of the following except

a. they must be consumed daily.
b. toxic levels in the body are rarely found.
c. they are absorbed directly into the blood.
d. excesses are eliminated from the kidneys

b. toxic levels in the body are rarely found.

All of the following are general characteristics of the fat-soluble vitamins except

a. excesses are eliminated from the kidneys.
b. absorption is via the lymphatic circulation.
c. several of them require protein carriers for transport.
d. they can be stored in relatively large amounts in certain body tissues.

excesses are eliminated from the kidneys

What is a chief function of the B vitamins?

a. Antioxidation
b. Anticoagulation
c. Antibody stabilization
d. Coenzyme participation

Coenzyme participation

Which of the following describes the basic function of a coenzyme?

a. Attaches to RNA to assist in the synthesis of an enzyme
b. Attaches to cell membranes to assist in uptake of an enzyme
c. Attaches to an enzyme and allows a chemical reaction to take place
d. Attaches to an enzyme, which allows for transport of the enzyme through the circulation

Attaches to an enzyme and allows a chemical reaction to take place

Beriberi results from a deficiency of

a. Thiamin
b. Vitamin A
c. Riboflavin
d. Vitamin B12

Thiamin

Which of the following is indicative of a dietary deficiency of riboflavin?

a. Beriberi
b. Diarrhea
c. Keratomalacia
d. Inflamed mouth membranes

d. Inflamed mouth membranes

Large doses of nicotinic acid are known to result in all of the following except

a. liver injury.
b. peptic ulcer disease.
c. dilation of capillaries.
d. disappearance of learning disorders in children.

disappearance of learning disorders in children

Which of the following vitamins is synthesized by intestinal bacteria?

biotin

Irreversible nerve damage has been reported in people taking large doses of

Vitamin B6

Which of the following is a type of neural tube defect?

spina bifida

A deficiency of which of the following vitamins results in accumulation of homocysteine in the blood?

folate

Pernicious anemia results from a combination of lack of intrinsic factor and

lack of hydrochloric acid

What is a free radical?

A molecule with at least one unpaired electron

Which of the following is a general function of vitamin C?

antioxidant agent

The protein that requires ascorbic acid for its formation is

collagen

What is the major carrier of the fat-soluble vitamins from the intestinal epithelial cell to the circulation?

a. Albumin
b. Cholesterol
c. Chylomicrons
d. Liposoluble binding proteins

c. Chylomicrons

Which of the following food substances can be converted to vitamin A in the body?

a. Tryptophan
b. Chlorophyll
c. Xanthophyll
d. Beta-carotene

d. Beta-carotene

What tissue contains the majority of the body's store of vitamin A?

a. Liver
b. Adipose
c. Retinal cells
d. Intestinal mucosal cells

a. Liver

which of the following compounds is known to function as a hormone?

a. Vitamin D
b. Vitamin K
c. Phylloquinone
d. Alpha-tocopherol

a. Vitamin D

What is the name of the vitamin D-deficiency disease in adults?

a. Rickets
b. Osteomalacia
c. Keratomalacia
d. Hyperkeratosis

b. Osteomalacia

Which of the following symptoms would indicate a vitamin D deficiency?

a. Bowed legs
b. Rupture of red blood cells
c. Frequent respiratory infections
d. Abnormally high blood calcium level

a. Bowed legs

What is the role of vitamin E in the metabolism of free radicals?

a. Carrier
b. Promoter
c. Eliminator
d. Synthesizer

c. Eliminator

Which of the following features do vitamins C and E share?

a. Both function as antioxidants
b. Both require bile for absorption
c. Neither participates in protein synthesis
d. Neither is affected by the processing of foods

a. Both function as antioxidants

Which of the following properties do vitamins D and K share?

a. Both are synthesized in the body
b. Both are required for normal vision
c. Neither has an effect on bone metabolism
d. Neither has an effect on erythrocyte function

a. Both are synthesized in the body

In what chief capacity does vitamin K function?

a. Blood clotting
b. Energy metabolism
c. Calcium utilization
d. Epithelial tissue renewal

a. Blood clotting

What fraction of lean tissue represents the water content?

a. 1/10
b. 1/3
c. 1/2
d. 3/4

d. 3/4

Which of the following is not a function of water in the body?

a. Lubricant
b. Source of energy
c. Maintains protein structure
d. Participant in chemical reactions

b. Source of energy

In the body, water that resides between cells is known as

a. diuretic fluid.
b. interstitial fluid.
c. edematous fluid.
d. intravascular fluid.

b. interstitial fluid.

All of the following are mild symptoms of dehydration except

a. thirst.
b. fatigue.
c. weakness.
d. spastic muscles.

d. spastic muscles

Which of the following is a feature of water and nutrition?

a. Water intoxication is rare but can result in death
b. Water losses from the body are highest through the feces
c. Chronic high intakes increase the risk for bladder cancer
d. Soft water has significant concentrations of magnesium and calcium

a. Water intoxication is rare but can result in death

Abnormally low blood sodium concentration is known specifically as

hyponatremia

How does antidiuretic hormone function?
a.) It activates renin
b.) It activates angiotension
c.)It stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys
d.) It stimulates sodium reabsorption by the kidneys

c.)It stimulates water re-absorption by the kidneys

Ions that carry a positive charge are called

a. anions.
b. cations.
c. mineralytes.
d. valence ions

cation

What is the term for the Pressure that develops when two solutions of varying concentrations are separated by a membrane?

a. Hypotension
b. Hypertension
c. Osmotic pressure
d. Hypertonic pressure

osmotic pressure

what is another term for hypertension?

a. High blood sodium
b. High blood pressure
c. Excessive mental stress
d. Excessive muscular contraction

high blood pressure

salt sensitive population groups include all the following except

a. Caucasians.
b. African-Americans.
c. people with obesity.
d. people with diabetes.

caucasians

The DASH diet plan was devised to prevent?

hypertension.

What is hydroxyapatite?

a. Abnormal cellular structures seen in osteoporosis
b. The calcium-rich crystalline structure of teeth and bones
c. A calcium regulatory hormone secreted from the trabeculae region of bone
d. A compound in plant foods that binds to calcium and phosphorus and inhibits absorption

b. The calcium-rich crystalline structure of teeth and bones

Where is the majority of the body's magnesium found?

a. Bones
b. Teeth
c. Fatty tissue
d. Cells of soft tissue

a. Bones

Which of the following is a feature of physical activity and bone health?

a. Dancing is not an effective activity for helping maintain bone density
b. Weight training improves bone density in young but not older women
c. Weight-bearing activities are effective in maintaining bone mass in adults but not in adolescents
d. Working the muscles places stress on bones which stimulates more trabeculae development

d. Working the muscles places stress on bones which stimulates more trabeculae development

A measure of the amount at which a nutrient is absorbed and used by the body is termed

nutrient density

What iron containing compound carries oxygen in the bloodstream?
a.) Ferritin
b.)Myoglobin
c.)Transferrin
d.)Hemoglobin

d.)Hemoglobin

What is the oxygen carrying protein of muscle cells?

myoglobin

Which of the following is known to enhance iron absorption?

Foods containing Vitamin C

what is the average lifespan of red blood cells?

about 4 months. 120 days

Iron overload is also known as

Hemochromatosis

What is the name given to the ingestion of nonnutritive substances

pica geophagia

Commercially available zinc containing lozenges are advertised to be effective against

the common cold.

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