chain of islands. (Indonesia and the Philipines are made up of these chain of islands)
Ring of Fire
a line of volcanoes around the Pacific Ocean. Southeast Asia rests on these.(they provide fertile soil for islands in Southeast Asia
fierce tropical storms that strike with little warning. Often strike Southeast Asia
country that pays tribute in the form of gifts to another nation or empire as acknowledgment of that nation's control or as payment for protection
*Mongol armies from China overran Pagan. Pagan became a tributary state of China. Pagan recognized the superiority of the Chinese emporer by giving tributes or gifts to him.
belief that spirits live in the natural world
(religious practice of the Balinese. Mountains, streams, trees, rocks have spirits)
spirits in the natural world.
How Buddhist blend their beliefs with the animist beliefs. He builds a small shrine and offers food,incense and other offerings
Major rivers of South East Asia
Irrawaddy River Red River
Salween River Mekong River
Effects of climate on Southeast Asia
Mostly tropical, hot and humid
affected by Monsoons
affected by typhoons
geography on Southeast Asia
located between South China Sea and Indian Ocean. consists of Myanmar,Cambodia,Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam
Mountains and valleys
includes many small island nations:
Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, Indonesia
and the Philipines
*Some located on Ring of Fire in the Pacific Ocean
Major mineral resource
Major agricultural resource
* tin 1/2 of worlds supply(also aluminum and nickel) (oil and natural gas)
effect of geography on Southeast Asia culture/society
the mountains cut groups of people from one another.
* ethnic minorities live in the rugged highlands
in small groups.
*a majority ethnic group controls the rich river valleys as well as the government.
effect of immigration in Southeast Asia
immigrants have brought their arts. languages, literature and religions to the culture
Common features of early kingdoms of SouthEast Asia
Most kingdoms were located in river valleys.
*because of the geography, no single ruler could conquer the lands.
*most rulers controlled small areas--organized strong armies
*collected taxes from farmers
*complex irrigation systems for rice farming
*remained independent from China
Kingdom centered around the Irrawaddy River (in what is today Myanmar)
*ruled by King Anawrata
*he brought Buddhism to the area after defeating the Mon Kingdom
*became a tributary state
*located in the Red River Delta
*in A.D. 39, the Trung Sisters led the struggle against invaders.
*China ruled them and brought Mahayana Buddhism
*spread culture and traditions
*regained independence in 939
*located in the Mekong River delta
*this kingdom had close ties with Indian traders
*created a system of writing
*absorbed the Hindu beliefs
*King Suryavarman II built Angkor (dedicated to Vishnu--Hindu god)
*it was destroyed and rebuilt by Jayavarman VII who founded a new capital
*have roots in several early kingdoms: Thai, Lao,Shan, Black Tai, Red Tai
*Mongols invaded in 1287
*1782, the Chakkri family set up a new Tai dynasty with the capital being Bangkok.
source of wealth for island nations
*kingdoms profited from the spice trade
*The Strait of Malacca was a vital waterway connecting the Indian Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. (controlled by Srivijaya)
*set up trading post
early Southeastern Asian kingdom on the island of Sumatra. (controlled the Strait of Malacca where spice trade occurred)
Method of introducing Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam and Christianity in Southeast Asia
*Hinduism: Indian traders spread Hindu
*Buddhism:Buddhist missionaries spread Buddhism
*Islam: Arab traders brought Islam
*Christianity: Christian missionaries came with European traders to Asia and tried to convert them to Roman Catholic faith
examples of blending animism with Hinduism/Buddhism
a Buddhist farmer does not ask Buddha to help him raise a good crop, he turns to nat, (or spirits in the natural world). He builds a small shrine on top of a pole in his rice field and puts offerings.
dominant religion in mainland S.E. Asia and island S.E. Asia
*mainland religion is Buddhism
*island religion is Islam
*farming the land (rice is the major food crop)
major food crop
Difference between wet rice and dry rice
*wet rice: grown in the lowlands, needs flat lands and large amounts of water. Rice remains covered with water until almost harvest time
*dry rice: grown in the highland areas, farmers burn brush and small trees and then plant the rice, after crop is harvested, farmers must move to other land so that land can renew itself
characteristic of village life
*most people live in villages.
*villages located near rivers and on hills
*homes built of bamboo, clay bricks, concrete blocks, and on stilts
*can have 50-200 families.
*leaders may be elected or appointed or inherit
rights of women
*Vietnam honored women and gave them nearly equal rights
*today, women enjoy many rights
*women can own property and run most of the stores in Vietnam
division of labor
Each person has their own job to do.
*men work in fields and harvest crops
*Women plant the rice by hand
*men build homes and make furniture, pottery
*women take care of the house and children, cook and make clothes.
education in SouthEast Asia
most attend elementary schools but don't go much further.
Two schools of Buddhism
1. Theravada Buddhism-boys entered monastary and became monks
2. Mahayana Buddhism-less emphasis on monastic life. Believed that men can achieve nirvana but women cannot