|Classical Conditioning||Learning by association.|
|Unconditioned Stimulus||Something you respond to naturally without learning it.|
|Unconditioned Response||Your behavior/reaction to an unconditioned stimulus.|
|Neutral Stimulus||No particular response to.|
|Conditioned Stimulus||Something you have to learn to response to.|
|Conditioned Response||What you have learnt to do from the conditioned stimulus.|
|Pairing||Unconditioned stimulus and neutral stimulus presented at the same time.|
|Operant Conditioning||Learning by consequences that follow.|
|Reinforcement||Makes a behavior stronger. More likely to see that behavior again.|
|Positive Reinforcement||Doing a behavior and receiving a reward. Makes behavior stronger, more likely to repeat it.|
|Negative Reinforcement||Doing a behavior and receiving a reward by the aversive thing getting taken away.|
|STUDY: Schaffer and Emerson (1964)||* Observation study - went into children's homes and observed they're attachment behaviors. |
* Studied them every month for 1st year, then came back once more when 18 months old. Looking specifically at separation from carer and reaction to strangers.
* 40% of cases the carer who fed, bathe etc was not the person the baby formed a primary attachment with. Would have expected the opposite. :-(
* Evidence for forming multiple attachments and care-giver sensitivity :-)
|STUDY: Harlow (1959)||Cloth Mother, Wire Mother...|
* Isolated baby monkeys from birth. In cage were two fake mothers: 1. Made of wire, able to fed milk. 2. Made of cloth, unable to fed milk.
* Observed behavior of monkeys with the fake mothers. Then frightened monkeys to see who it ran too for comfort.
* Monkeys ran too cloth mother. Spent most of time with it.
* Evidence for 'contact comfort' as appose to food.
:-( Cannot prove that actually formed a bond. High ethically incorrect.
:-) Evidence for contact comfort.