Two Concepts of Social Class: Marx & Webe
|Karl Marx (1818-83)|| A theorist of human emancipation|
- history of human societies as a history of one ruling class being
overthrown by a new one.
- expected modern capitalist societies to consist of only two classes: Owners (bourgeoisie) and Workers (proletariat)
|Marx's two class system|| - The bourgeoisie owns the means of production.|
- The proletariat does not own such means and must sell his or her labor to the bourgeoisie.
- Class consciousness: awareness of your class and its enemies.
- False consciousness: when workers assume they share common interests with owners
|Max Weber (1864-1920)|| Multiple Determinants of Stratification. It's not just about material wealth.|
- Class (property)
- Status (prestige)
- Party (power)
|Status Inconsistency|| Unequal access to property, prestige, and power.|
- A person may score high on one dimension like property but low on another like prestige or power.
|Social Mobility: Upward and Downward Movement Within a Stratification System||...|
|Achieved Status||based on merit|
|Ascribed Status||fixed at birt|
|Mobility||a change of position within the stratification system|
|Structural Mobility|| no change in the distribution of higher and lower |
|Exchange Mobility|| upward mobility only if others experience downward |
|Three Theories of Stratification|| 1.Functionalism|
2. Social Evolutionary Theory
|Functionalismm: The Key is Replaceabilty|| Functionalist theory - explains that because some workers are much less |
replaceable than others, rewards will be different.
- Functional importance of jobs linked to replaceability.
- Less replaceable jobs receive greater rewards.
|Social Evolutionary Theory: Specialization|| More rewarding aspects of culture preserved.|
- culture more complex; areas of specialization develop.
- Some areas considered more important than others: this promotes stratification.
|Conflict Theory|| stratification will reflect the outcome of conflict among groups in a society.|
- Manipulating replaceability: mechanism by which professional groups and unions maximize their status by manipulating replaceability