Karl Marx (1818-83)
A theorist of human emancipation
- history of human societies as a history of one ruling class being
overthrown by a new one.
- expected modern capitalist societies to consist of only two classes: Owners (bourgeoisie) and Workers (proletariat)
Marx's two class system
- The bourgeoisie owns the means of production.
- The proletariat does not own such means and must sell his or her labor to the bourgeoisie.
- Class consciousness: awareness of your class and its enemies.
- False consciousness: when workers assume they share common interests with owners
Max Weber (1864-1920)
Multiple Determinants of Stratification. It's not just about material wealth.
- Class (property)
- Status (prestige)
- Party (power)
Unequal access to property, prestige, and power.
- A person may score high on one dimension like property but low on another like prestige or power.
Social Mobility: Upward and Downward Movement Within a Stratification System
based on merit
fixed at birt
a change of position within the stratification system
no change in the distribution of higher and lower
upward mobility only if others experience downward
Three Theories of Stratification
2. Social Evolutionary Theory
Functionalismm: The Key is Replaceabilty
Functionalist theory - explains that because some workers are much less
replaceable than others, rewards will be different.
- Functional importance of jobs linked to replaceability.
- Less replaceable jobs receive greater rewards.
Social Evolutionary Theory: Specialization
More rewarding aspects of culture preserved.
- culture more complex; areas of specialization develop.
- Some areas considered more important than others: this promotes stratification.
stratification will reflect the outcome of conflict among groups in a society.
- Manipulating replaceability: mechanism by which professional groups and unions maximize their status by manipulating replaceability