Anatomy-Skeletal

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epiphysis

Site of spongy bone in the adult

diaphysis

site of compact bone in the adult, scientific name for bone shaft

red marrow

site of hematopoiesis in the adult

yellow marrow cavity

site of fat storage in the adult

epiphyseal plate

site of longitudinal growth in a child

elastic cartilage

supports the external ear and the epiglottis

fibrocartilage

between the vertebrae, meniscus in a knee joint, most effective at resisting compression

hyaline cartilage

forms the walls of the voice box (larynx), articular cartilages, connects the ribs to the sternum

cocentric lamellae

layers of calcified matrix around a central canal

lacunae

"residences" of osteocytes

central (haversian) canal

longitudinal canal, carrying blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics

bone matrix

nonliving, structural part of bone, inorganic salts deposited in organic ground substance

canaliculi

tiny canals, connecting lacunae, minute canals connecting osteocytes of an osteon

examples of long bones

humerus, ulna, and phalanx

examples of short bones

carpals and tarsals

examples of flat bones

parietal and ribs

examples of irregular bones

calcaneus and vertebra

spine

sharp slender process

tubercle

small rounded projection

crest

narrow ridge of bone

tuberosity

large rounded projection

head

structure supported on neck

ramus

armlike projection

condyle

rounded, convex projection

fissure

narrow depression or opening

meatus

canal like structure

foramen

opening through a bone

fossa

shallow depression

sinus

air-filled cavity

trochanter

large, irregularly shapped projection

epicondyle

raised area of a condyle

process

projection or prominence

frontal

forehead bone

zygomatic

cheek bone

mandible

lower jaw

nasal

bridge of nose

palatine bone

posterior part of hard palate

parietals

much of the lateral and superior cranium

occipital

most posterior part of cranium

sphenoid

single, irregular, bat-shaped bone, forming part of the cranial floor

lacrimal bone

tiny bones, bearing tear ducts

maxilla

anterior part of hard palate

ethmoid

superior and middle nasal conchae formed from its projections

temporal

site of mastoid process, middle ear found here

temporal bone

site of styloid process

ethmoid, frontal, maxilla, sphenoid

four bones, containing paranasal sinuses

occipital

its condyles articulate with the atlas, foramen magnum contained here

vomer

nasal septum

deltoid tuberosity

raised area on lateral surface of humerus to which deltoid muscle attaches

humerus

arm bone

clavicle and scapula

bones composing the shoulder girdle

radius and ulna

forearm bones

acromian

point where scapula and clavicle connect

scapula

shoulder girdle bone that has no attachment to the axial skeleton

clavicle

shoulder girdle bone that articulates anteriorly with the sternum, commonly called the collarbone

glenoid cavity

socket in the scaula for the arm bone

trochlea

distal medial process of the humerus, joins the ulna

ulna

medial bone of the forearm in anatomical position, forearm bone involved in formation of elbow joint

capitulum

rounded knob on the humerus that articulates with the radius

scapula and sternum

bones that articulate with the clavicle

carpals

bones of the wrist

phalanges

bones of the fingers

metacarpals

heads of these bones form the knuckles

ilium, ischium, and pubis

fuse to form the coxal bone (hip bone)

ischial tuberosity

recieves the weight of the body when sitting

pubic symphysis

point where the coxal bones join anteriorly

iliac crest

upper margin of illiac bones

acetabulum

deep socket in the hip bone that receives the head of the thighbone

femur

longest bone in body, articulates with the coxal bone

fibula

lateral bone of the leg

tibia

medial bone of the leg

femur and tibia

bones forming the knee joint

tibial tuberosity

point where the patellar ligament attaches

patella

kneecap

tibia

shinbone

medial malleolus

distal process on medial tibial surface

lateral malleolus

process forming the outer ankle

calcaneus

heel bone

tarsals

bones of ankle

metatarsals

bones forming the instep of the foot

oubturator foramen

opening in a coxal bone formed by the pubic and ischial rami

greater and lesser trochanter

sites of muscle attachment on the proximal end of the femur

tallus

tarsal bone that articulates with the tibia

simple fracture

bone is broken cleanly; the ends do not penetrate the skin

closed reduction

nonsurgical realignment of broken bone ends and splinting of bone

greenstick fracture

a break common in children; bone splinters but break is incomplete

compression fracture

a fracture in which the bone is crushed; common in the vertebral column

compound fracture

a fracture in which the bone ends penetrate through the skin

open reduction

surgical realignment of broken bone ends

spiral fracture

a result of twisting forces

osteocytes

mature bone cells

osteoblasts

bone forming cells

osteoclasts

bone destroying cells that break down bone matrix for remodeling and release of calcium

rickets

bones in children fail to calcify due to a lack of calcium and vitamin D

funny bone

inner condyle where ulnar nerve is exposed

male pelvis

pubic arch is less than 90 degrees, heart shaped inlet of true pelvis, more curved sacrum

female pelvis

pubic arch is greater than 90 degrees, more round heart shaped inlet of true pelvis, less curved sacrum

arches of the foot

bones are arranged to form 3: ligaments, tendons, and bone, 2 longitudinal and 1 transverse

hematoma

blood filled swelling

repair of bone fractures

1. Hemotoma is formed (blood vessels ruptured)
2. Break is splinted by fibrocartilage to form a callus
3. Fibrocartilage callus is replaced by a bony callus (osteoblasts and osteoclasts)
4. Bony callus is remodeled to form a permanent patch

axial skeleton

forms the longitudinal part of the body, divided into three parts: skull, vertebral column, bony thorax

the skull

2 sets of bones: cranium (encloses brain), facial bones (facial expression)

sutures

what joins bones

Paranasal sinuses

hollow portions of bones surrounding the nasal cavity, lighten the skull, give resonance and amplification to the voice

hyoid bone

the only bone that does not articulate with another bone, serves as a movable base for the tongue, moves larynx (voice box)

fontanelles

fibrous membranes connecting the cranial bones in a fetal skull, allow the brain to grow, convert to bone within 24 months after birth

vertebral column

33 bones at birth, 26 bones per adult, axial support

bony thorax

forms a cage to protect major organs, sternum, ribs, thoracic vertebrae

appendicular sternum

limbs (appendages), pectoral girdle (shoulder), pelvic girdle

pectoral (shoulder) girdle

composed of two bones: clavicle (colar bone, attaches to sternum), scapula (shoulder blade), allow the uper limbs to have exceptionally free movement

articular cartilage

covers epiphysis, thin hyaline cartilage layer that covers epiphyses of bones in synovial joints

periosteum

covers diaphysis , Outer most fibrous layer that supplies blood and nerves to the bone

coronal suture

between frontal and parietal

lambdoid suture

between parietal and occipital

sagittal suture

divides right and left parietal bones

squamous suture

between parietal and temporal

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