|Habituation|| The process of adapting to stimuli that do not change.|
Ex: repeated popping of balloons.
|Classical conditioning|| A procedure in which a neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with a stimulus that elicits a reflex or other response until the neutral stimulus alone comes to elicit a similar response.|
Ex: I become scared when my full name is called.
|Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)|| |
A stimulus that elicits a response without conditioning.
Ex: Meat that makes a dog drool.
|Unconditioned response (UCR)|| The automatic or unlearned response without conditioning.|
Ex: The dog drooling when it smells meat.
|Conditioned stimulus (CS)|| The originally neutral stimulus that, through pairing with the unconditioned stimulus, comes to elicit a conditioned response.|
Ex: Clicking noise from a clicker whenever meat is presented to the dog.
|Conditioned response (CR)|| The response that the conditioned stimulus elicits.|
|Extinction|| The gradual disappearance of a conditioned response when a conditioned stimulus no longer predicts the appearance of an unconditioned stimulus.|
Ex: Withholding the UCS.
|Reconditioning|| The quick relearning of a conditioned response following extinction.|
Ex: When the meat and clicker are both used once again.
|Spontaneous recovery|| The reappearance of the conditioned response after extinction and without further pairings of the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli.|
Ex: When the CS is presented after a break.
|Stimulus generalization|| A phenomenon in which a conditioned response is elicited by stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus.|
Ex: stimuli that are similar but not identical to the CS.
|Second-order conditioning|| A phenomenon in which a conditioned stimulus acts like an unconditioned stimulus, creating conditioned stimuli out of events associated with it.|
Ex: When a child suffers pain from an injection, they develop a fear of the doctor's white coat.
|Law of Effect|| A law stating that if a response made in the presence of a particular stimulus is followed by satisfaction, that response is more likely the next time the stimulus is encountered.|
Ex: Cat's learning to open a box multiple times.
|Instrumental conditioning|| A process through which an organism learns to respond to the environment in a way that produces positive consequences and avoids negative ones. Name coined by Thorndike.|
Ex: The reward for pulling the lever is a food pellet.
|Operant conditioning|| A process through which an organism learns to respond to the environment in a way that produces positive consequences and avoids negative ones.|
Ex: Name coined by Skinner.
|Operant|| A response that has some effect on the world.|
Ex: When a child says "I'm hungry" and is then fed, the child has made an operant response that influences when the food will appear.
|Reinforcer|| A stimulus event that increases the probability that the response that immediately preceded it will occur again.|
Ex: Two types are Positive and Negative
|Positive reinforcers|| Stimuli that strengthen a response if they follow that response.|
Ex: Food given to a pigeon after it pecks a button.
|Negative reinforcers|| The removal of unpleasant stimuli, such as pain.|
Ex: Disappearance of a headache after taking pain reliever.
|Escape conditioning|| A type of learning in which an organism learns to make a particular response in order to terminate an aversive stimulus.|
Ex: taking medication to relieve pain / giving a crying baby a toy.
|Avoidance conditioning|| A type of learning in which an organism responds to a signal in a way that prevents exposure to an aversive stimulus.|
Ex: "prevents" the aversive stimulus from occurring in the first place.
|Discrimination|| Stimuli that signal whether reinforcement is available if a certain response is made.|
Ex: Allows the ability to determine what is inappropriate and appropriate in particular situations.
|Shaping|| The process of reinforcing responses that comes successively closer to the desired response.|
Ex: teaching a dog to "shake" by giving it a treat once it sits a slightly raises its paw etc.
Reinforcing individual responses occurring in a sequence to form a complex behavior. It is frequently used for training behavioral sequences (or "chains") that are beyond the current repertoire of the learner.
|Primary reinforcers|| Reinforcers that meet an organism's basic needs.|
Ex: Food & Water
|secondary reinforcers|| A reward that people or animals learn to like.|
Ex: Money & Smiles (:
|Fixed-ratio schedule|| A partial reinforcement schedule that provides reinforcement following a fixed number of responses.|
Ex: doing 20 pushups to stay fit.
|Variable-ratio schedule|| A partial reinforcement schedule that provides reinforcement after a varying number of responses.|
Ex: Slot machine jackpot
|Fixed-interval schedule|| A partial reinforcement schedule that provides reinforcement for the first response that occurs after some fixed time has passed since the last reward.|
Ex: Getting a paycheck after 2 weeks of work.
|Variable-interval schedule|| A partial reinforcement schedule that provides reinforcement for the first response after varying periods of time.|
Ex: studying for a class that has surprise pop quizzes.
|Punishment|| Presentation of an aversive stimulus or the removal of a pleasant stimulus.|
KEY: ADDING STIMULUS
Ex: Shouting "No!"
|Learned helplessness|| Learning that responses do not affect consequences, resulting in failure to try to exert control over the environment.|
Ex: "Stuff happens, and there's nothing I can do about it."
|Latent learning|| Learning that is not demonstrated at the time it occurs.|
Ex: Telling a passerby your neighborhood post office is closed on Sunday even if you have never been.
|Cognitive maps|| A mental representation of the environment.|
Ex: Allows you to explain how to get to the post office from where you are standing.
|Insight|| A sudden understanding about what is required to solve a problem.|
Ex: "mental trial-and-error" or "learning to learn"
|Observational learning|| Learning how to perform new behaviors by watching others.|
Ex: Repeating a guitar scale after an instructor plays.
Flickr Creative Commons Images
Some images used in this set are licensed under the Creative Commons through Flickr.com. Click to see the original works with their full license.
This product uses the Flickr API but is not endorsed or certified by Flickr.