All living things need what?
Some living things can make their food from CO(2) and H(2)O
Get energy by eating.
Consumers or Heterotrophs
Herbivores (feed on plants) Carnivores (feed on meat) Omnivores (feed on plants and meat) Decomposers (break down organic waste)
What are the 4 types of consumers?
All energy comes from where?
Aerobic harvesting of chemical energy from organic fuel molecules
Aerobic requires oxygen. Anaerobic does not.
Aerobic vs. Anaerobic
Cellular respiration requires a cell to exchange two gases with its surroundings. Breathing exchanges these same gases between the blood and outside air.
How are cellular respiration and breathing related?
O(2) and CO(2)
What are the two gases used in cellular respiration and breathing?
C(6)H(12)O(6) + 6O(2) --> 6CO(2) + 6H(2)O = 38 ATP
What is the Cellular Respiration equation?
Loss of electrons
Gain of electrons
Chemical Reactions that transfer electrons from one substance to another are called oxidation-reduction reactions
It's an electron grabber because of its high electronegativity. It attracts electrons very strongly
Why is Oxygen an electron grabber?
It as though the electrons are falling. (An electron loses PE when it "falls" to oxygen)
What happens when electrons move from glucose to oxygen?
It generates an explosive release of energy in the form of heat and light
What happens when there is a very rapid electron "fall"?
It produces water
What is produced when a spark triggers a reaction between hydrogen gas and oxygen gas?
A controlled "fall" of electrons that unlocks chemical energy in smaller amount.
Cellular respiration is what?
An all at once redox reaction
What is a rapid electron "fall"?
The steps in the chain and electron carrier molecules built into the inner membrane of a mitochondrion. After electrons are passed from carrier to carrier they make it down to oxygen and releases energy.
What's an electron transport chain?
NADH transfers electrons from to an e- transport chain. O(2) pulls the e-s down the chain. Cells use the stepwise release of energy to make ATP. O(2) combine with e- and H from food to produce water.
What is the role of oxygen in an electron transport chain?
Glycolysis (Anaerobic) Citric Acid Cycle (Aerobic) and Oxidative Phosphorylation (Electron Transport)
What are the three stages in cellular respiration?
Splitting of sugar
What does glycolysis mean?
Glycolysis breaks a six-carbon glucose into 2 three-carbon molecules of pyruvic acid
Glycolysis breaks a what into what?
Pyruvic acid donates to NAD(+) forming NADH
Pyruvic acid donates high energy electrons to what?
How many ATP's does Glycolysis make?
Basically two acetyl CoA molecules move on to the Citric Acid Cycle since glucose was broken down into two pyruvic molecule
The Krebs Cycle
The Citric Acid Cycle is also known as what?
Acetyl CoA joins with Oxaloacetic acid to make 6 CO(2)
What's the first step of the Citric Acid Cycle?
One CO(2) leaves making it a 5-Carbon Compound and also NAD(+) turns into NADH + H(+)
What's the second step of the Citric Acid Cycle?
Another CO(2) leaves making it a 4-Carbon Compound. NAD(+) turns into NADH + H(+) and ADP + phosphate group turns into ATP
What's the third step of the Citric Acid Cycle?
FAD turns into FADH(2)
What's the fourth step of the Citric Acid Cycle?
NAD(+) turns into NADH + H(+). And then you repeat for the other CoA.
What's the fifth step of the Citric Acid Cycle?
How many ATP's does the Citric Acid Cycle make?
How many ATP's Oxidative Phosphorylation make?
Series of molecules in a membrane that transfer electrons from one molecule to another.
What's an electron transport chain?
Enzyme that helps in ATP production
What is ATP Synthase?
In cristae, folds in the inner membrane of mitochondria
Where is the ATP Synthase located?
NADH and FADH(2) give up electrons to the electron transport chain. (NADH at beginning of chain, FADH(2) farther down)
What's the first step in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
Electrons are passed down the chain, losing energy as they move from molecule to molecule.
What's the second step in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
The energy lost from electrons is used to pump protons (H+) out of the mitochondrial matrix creating a concentration and electrical gradient.
What's the third step in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
Chemiosmosis takes place, protons move through ATP synthase creating ATP
What's the fourth step in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
Oxygen is the final acceptor of electrons on the chain, also accepting protons. Protons, electrons and oxygen combine to form water.
What's the fifth step in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
Process in which energy stored in the form of a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane is used to drive cellular work.
What is chemiosmosis?
The energy from the oxidation-reduction reactions of the electron transport chain that transfer electrons from organic molecules to oxygen is used to phosphorylate ADP.
Why is it called Oxidative Phosphorylation?