11 Functions of Cells

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absorption

the transport of dissolved substances into cells

digestion

the breakdown of absorbed substances

respiration

the breakdown of food molecules with the release of energy

excretion

the removal of soluble waste products

egestion

the removal of nonsoluble waste products

secretion

the release of biosynthesized substances

homeostasis

maintaining the status quo

reproduction

producing more cells

biosynthesis

release of substances nesecary for life

movement

movement (relocation) of substances in a cell

irritability

senses and responds to change

animal cell (shape)

circular

plant cell (shape)

square

cell wall

a rigid structure on the outside of certain cells

middle lamella

thin film between the cell walls of adjacent plant cells

plasma membrane

the semipermeable membrane between the cell contents

cytoplasm

a jellylike fluid in the cell

mitochondria

the organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy

lysosome

the organelle responsible for hydrolysis reactions

ribosomes

non-membrane bound organelles responsible for protein synthesis

endoplasmic reticulum

an organelle composed of an extensive network of folded membranes that preforms many tasks such as aiding in the transport of complex cells

rough er

er that is dotted with ribosoms

smooth er

er that has no ribosomes

leucoplasts

organelles that store starches or oils

chromoplasts

organelles that contain pigments used in photosynthesis

central vacuoles

a large vacuole that rests at the center of most plant cells and is filled with a solution that contains a high concentration of solutes

waste vacuoles

vacuoles that contain the waste products of digestion

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