what are the five geospheres?
The Lithosphere is made up of (compositional layers)
The crust and the top of the mantle
The Lithosphere is made up of (types of crust)
Continental Crust: Si+O granite rock
Oceanic Crust: Fe+Mg basalt rock
the part of the earth that is water
Atosphere (spheres of)
Atmosphere (definition of)
the envelope of gases that surrounds the planet
troposphere (gases of)
the part of the earth that is soil
the four cycles of matter on earth
How do scientists learn about the Earth's interior?
They examine seismic waves
layers of the mantle
lower part of lithosphere
an upper part of the mantle that flows like plastic
solid mantle rock below the astenosphere
dense solid because of pressure
what do scientists hypothesize about the source of Earth's magnetic field?
the movement of liquid iron in the outer core
why is this possibly wrong?
the sun and moon also have magnetic fields, but the sun doesn't have enough iron and the moon doesn't have a liquid outer core
why is the core hot?
What is Alfred Wegener's evidence supporting the theory of continental drift?
continents fit like puzzle pieces
climactic evidence (palm trees in Antarctica)
ages and types of rocks
Why is the mantle moving?
what are convection currents?
When magma near the core is heated and rises and magma near the crust cools and sinks
What other two forces cause plates to move?
the accumulation of differences between groups which can lead to the formation of new species
group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
Structures in different species that are similar because of common ancestry, but may be used for different functions
process by which unrelated organisms independently evolve similarities when adapting to similar environments Ex. bird and bat
traits that are functionally similar even though there is no common ancestor
inheritance of acquired characteristics
natural selection: survival of the fittest
underwater mountain chain
gap through the center of a ridge
evidence for sea-floor spreading
symmetrical magnetic polarity
younger rock closer to the ridge, older rock farther from the ridge