a state dominated by the clergy. Who rule on the grounds that they are the only interpreters of gods law
muslim's place of worship
in Iran 51% of the population speak this language
sunni vs shi'ism
Islamic prophet Muhammad died these two groups were formed, one of them thought that any spiritual leader not just muhammads blood could rule. The other thought that leaders should only be blood decendents of Muhammad.
Islamic holy book
faith leader, lower rank than a imam
""sign of god" high ranking cleric in iran
constitution of 1906
this introduced modern government into Iran (includes: elections & seperation of powers)
Reza Shah (Pahlavis)
the 1921 coup was lead by him, he was later replaced by his son
These were vigilantes who intimidated voters who were not pro-Khomeini following the Revolution.
These were pro-Khomeini clergymen
In 1980, Saddam Hussein and Iraq invaded Iran. The war went on for eight long years before a cease fire was brokered by the UN. There was a large sense of nationalism during this time.
Literal translation is "struggle". Islamists interpret this to mean armed struggle against non-believers.
Constitution of 1979
Written by Assembly of Experts following the revolution. It is a mix of theocracy and democracy. It imposes Shari'a law.
Was amended in 1989 to extend Supreme Leader's term to life.
He is the most powerful person in Iran. He serves for life and is appointed by the Assembly of Experts. He appoints half of the Guardian Council, the heads of the Judiciary, and the commanders of the army.
Assembly of Religious Experts
They are responsible for appointing and monitoring the Supreme Leader. They have 86 members and are directly elected every 8 years.
There are 12 member on the council; half appointed by the Supreme Leader, half by the Judiciary. Their main powers are vetting candidates running in elections, and vetoing bills. (Ex- Khatami's reforms failing, women always blocked from running)
This is Iran's Parliament. There are 290 members who are directly elected every 4 years. They introduce and pass legislation. They also have the power to impeach ministers and the president.
The expediency council's main purpose is to solve disputes between the Majles and the Guardian Council. The also advise the Supreme Leader and have the power to initiate laws. As of 2005, they are appointed by the Supreme Leader.
Labeled as a pragmatic conservative, he is a former president who now resides as chairman or the Expediency Council.
Former president of Iran, he worked extensively as a reformist trying to increase freedoms and turn the economy towards a free market. Currently a leader of the green movement.
Election of 2004
In the legislative election of 2004 over 2000 reformist candidates were vetted from running which in turn led to a crushing defeat for the reformists by the conservatives.
Bush's "Axis of Evil" Speech
President Bush gave a speech in which he labeled Iran and other countries as an "Axis of Evil" that aided in the spread of terror and use of weapons of mass destruction. This enraged mostly all Iranians and drastically worsened US and Iranian relations.
Nuclear Power Issue
Iran continues to push for the use of nuclear technology to use for power purposes only but the UN and especially the US have been against the idea due to the threat of nuclear weapons.
Election of 2009
The election of 2009 is said to be a result of fraud. Ahmadinejad beat out Mousavi despite Mousavi having led pre-election polls. That in and of itself wouldn't prompt fraud but the huge conflict involving extra ballots and the Ayatollah trying to urge it as 'divine assessment' in favor of Ahmadinejad led to large protests amongst the people.
People of the Book
The three faiths mentioned in the Qur'an that are non-Muslim being Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians.
A state that gets a large portion of their revenue from renting out their natural resources to other states.
Iran was one of the founding members of OPEC which stands for Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. They have gained a huge amount of power because of their control over the oil industry and setting the price of oil itself.
The inequalities between the modern (ties to oil industry) and traditional (clergy, middle class, and rural masses) sectors of Iran have split the country into two, also known as dual society.
Muhammad Reza Shah
during his regine the oil fields were nationalized and he took over directly after his father
in 1951 he was the prime minister who privatized Iran's oil fields
Irans feared secret police
an urban market place where shops, workshops and small businesses are located
In 1963 Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi launched reforms to help modernize Iran, this is called the _______ ____________
interpretation/strict following of the rules of a religion. Which the Ayatollah interprets the belief of Islam and translates those principles with help from the constitution.
Supreme leader for life in the 1989 constitution
senior clerics have control over the people, this is Ayatollah Khomeini's idea
Islamic Republic (1979-2001)
After the iranian revolution of 1979, time of change caused by a new government
1979 Iranian Hostage
students in Iran were trying to show support for the revolution. They took over an american embassy and held 52 americans hostage.