a dramatic rise in prices (inflation). A major problem in europe in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, causes economic collapse in Spain
triangle of trade
Europeans brought goods to Africa, took slaves to Americas and traded for raw materials, went to Europe and traded materials for manufactured goods
the social class between the lower and upper classes
sustained increase in the general level of prices
an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
enclosing fields, rotating crops, employing use of fertilizer, and planting multiple types of crops were all contributions from what country?
(1596-1650) French philosopher, discovered analytical geometry. Saw Algebra and Geometry have a direct relationship. Reduced everything to spiritual or physical... "I think, therefore I am."
Favorable balance of trade
This was the ideology that most states used to gain the most money from their exports by increasing the amount of finished materials while decreasing the amount of raw materials
Polish astronomer who produced a model of the solar system with the sun in the center (1473-1543). This brought great anger to those who thought the earth was the center.
An economic and defensive alliance of the free towns in northern Germany, founded about 1241 and most powerful in the fourteenth century. (p. 401)
deriving general principles from particular facts or instances ("Every cat I have ever seen has four legs; cats are four-legged animals").
reasoning in which a conclusion is reached by stating a general principle and then applying that principle to a specific case (The sun rises every morning; therefore, the sun will rise on Tuesday morning.)
a lack of belief in the existence of God or gods
The religion of the Enlightenment (1700s). Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterwards He left it to run by its own natural laws. Denied that God communicated to man or in any way influenced his life.
the theological doctrine that human reason rather than divine revelation establishes religious truth
Member of a group of Enlightenment thinkers who tried to apply the methods of science to the improvement of society
a reference work (often in several volumes) containing articles on various topics (often arranged in alphabetical order) dealing with the entire range of human knowledge or with some particular specialty
These were meeting places for philosophical discussion that were for the upper and middle class citizens who would talk about different doctrines
the notion that society is based on an agreement between government and the governed in which people agree to give up some rights in exchange for the protection of others
the change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850.
fabrics that are woven or knitted; material for clothing
small-scale industry that can be carried on at home by family members using their own equipment
This machine played an important role in the mechanization of textile production. Like the spinning wheel, it may be operated by a treadle or by hand. But, unlike the spinning wheel, it can spin more than one yarn at a time. The idea for multiple-yarn spinning was conceived about 1764 by James Hargreaves, an English weaver. In 1770, he patented a machine that could spin 16 yarns at a time. (643, 727)
1780's; Richard Arkwright; powered by horse or water; turned out yarn much faster than cottage spinning wheels, led to development of mechanized looms
A machine that turns the energy released by burning fuel into motion. Thomas Newcomen built the first crude but workable steam engine in 1712. James Watt vastly improved his device in the 1760s and 1770s. Steam power was then applied to machinery. (607)
The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century.
open field system
system of farming that divided the land to be cultivated by the peasants of a given village into several large fields, which were in turn cut up into long, narrow strips-fields open and not enclosed into small plots by fences or hedges-large field as community-same pattern of plowing, sowing, and harvesting
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
European trade agreement with Africa dealing with slaves brought from Africa. Integral part of Triangle Trade between the Americas, Africa, and Europe.
the theory that the sun is at the center of the Universe and/or the Solar System
a movement in literature and art during the late 18th and early 19th centuries that celebrated nature rather than civilization
an economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, esp. as contrasted to cooperatively or state-owned means of wealth.
Emelyan Pugachev promised the serfs land of their own and freedom from their lords, initiating a peasant revolt, the largest of the 18th century.
Seven Years War
Known in America as French and Indian war. It was the war between the French and their Indian allies and the English that proved the English to be the more dominant force of what was to be the United States both commercially and in terms of controlled regions.
Treaty of Paris
Signed by the United States and Spain in December 1898, this treaty ended the Spanish-American War. Under its terms, Spain recognized Cuba's independence and assumed the Cuban debt; it also ceded Puerto Rico and Guam to the United States. At the insistence of the U.S. representatives, Spain also ceded the Phillipines. The Senate ratified the treaty on February 6, 1899.
War of Austrian Succesion
fought in Europe, the far east, and north america, 1740-1748, prussia and france vs. austria and great britian
Wealth of Nations
This work criticized mercantilism by saying that it meant a combination of stifling government regulations and unfair privileges for state-approved monopolies and government favorites
Two Treatises on Government
book publish by John Locke, set forth idea that people have certain rights and the gov. is formed to protect those rights, life liberty property, he believed ppl were justified in rebelling if this was violated
Scottish economist who wrote the Wealth of Nations and designed modern Capitalism
policy based on the idea that government should play as small a role as possible in the economy
This scientist spread the word about the experimental method and formalized the empirical method and combined his thinking with Descartes to form the scientific method
English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience (1632-1704)
English philosopher and political theorist best known for his book Leviathan (1651), in which he argues that the only way to secure civil society is through universal submission to the absolute authority of a sovereign.
French political philosopher who advocated the separation of executive and legislative and judicial powers (1689-1755)
Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars; demonstrated that different weights descend at the same rate; perfected the refracting telescope that enabled him to make many discoveries (1564-1642)
Greek philosopher. A pupil of Plato, the tutor of Alexander the Great, and the author of works on logic, metaphysics, ethics, natural sciences, politics, and poetics, he profoundly influenced Western thought. In his philosophical system, which led him to criticize what he saw as Plato's metaphysical excesses, theory follows empirical observation and logic, based on the syllogism, is the essential method of rational inquiry.
medical practice and advice based on observation and experience in ignorance of scientific findings
Compiled the first detailed observational data on planetary motion (mars), without a telescope.
This astronomer stated that the orbits of planets around the sun were elliptical, the planets do not orbit at a constant speed, and that an orbit is related to its distance from the sun
This physicist developed the law of universal gravitation and further caused the decline of the old system of science
French philosopher who was a leading figure of the Enlightenment in France
French, perhaps greatest Enlightenment thinker. Deist. Mixed glorification and reason with an appeal for better individuals and institutions. Wrote Candide. Believed enlightened despot best form of government.
philosophes inspired and supported reforms of Enlightened despots-believed absolute rulers should promote good of people-religious toleration, streamlined legal codes, increased access to education, reduction or elimination of torture and death penalty
Peter the Great
czar of Russia who introduced ideas from western Europe to reform the government
Empress of Russia who greatly increased the territory of the empire (1729-1796)
This was the ruler of the Habsburgs that controlled the Catholic Church closely, granted religious toleration and civic rights to Protestants and Jews, and abolished serfdom
Was the King of Prussia, encouraged agricultural reform, helped landowners raise money for agricultural improvements, was religiously tolerant, attempted to strengthen royal royal power through legal reform and felt he was the "first servant of the state"