the entry compound for the citric acid cycle in cellular respiration, formed from a fragment of pyruvate attached to a coenzyme.
A catabolic pathway that consumes oxygen and organic molecules, producing ATP. This is the most efficient catabolic pathway and is carried out in most eukaryotic cells and many prokaryotic organisms.
Glycolysis followed by the conversion of pyruvate to carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol.
the use of inorganic molecules other than oxygen to accept electrons at the 'downhill' end of electron transport chains.
A complex of several membrane proteins that provide a port through which protons diffuse. This complex functions in chemiosmosis with the hydrogen ion (proton) concentration gradient to make ATP. ATP sythases are found in the inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotic cells and in the plasma membrane of prokaryotes.
the catabolic pathways of aerobic and anaerobic respiration, which break down organic molecules for the production of ATP.
An energy-coupling mechanism that uses energy stored in the form of a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane to drive cellular work, such as the synthesis of ATP. Most ATP synthesis in cells occurs by chemiosmosis.
An organic molecule serving as a cofactor. Most vitamins function as coenzymes in metabolic reactions. (2-C Compound)
Electron Transport Chain
A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electron during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.
Cellular uptake of biological molecules and particulate matter via formation of new vesicles from the plasma membrane.
A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic and product, such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid.
The splitting of glucose into pyruvate. Glycolysis occurs in almost all living cells, serving as the starting point for fermentation or cellular respiration.
Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)
in mitochondrias matrix. has 8 steps. 1 glucose causes 2 turns of the citric acid cycle.
Glycolysis followed by the conversion of pyruvate to lactate, with no release of carbon dioxide.
The loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction. (when oxidized you LOSE electrons)
Pyruvate (Pyruvic Acid)
Made in glycolysis and moves through the mitochondria pores into the matrix.
The addition of electrons to a substance involved in a redox reaction. (when reduced you GAIN electrons)