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Sigmund Freud

Founder of the Psychoanalytic Theory

Eros (Life) Thanatos (Death)

Two Drives that Shape Behavior according to the Psychoanalytic Theory

Aggression

Thanatos is characterized in?

Sex, Love

Eros is characterized in?

Id, Ego, Superego

Three Aspects of Human Personality
(according to Freud)

Pleasure Principle

The Id operates according to the?

Instant Gratification

Pleasure principle is synonymous with?

Libido

The psychic energy that drives personality

Reality Principle

The Ego Operates in accordance with the?

Delayed Gratification

The reality principle is synonymous with?

Satisfy and control the Id

Function of the Ego

Super-Ego

Consists of an ego-ideal and the conscience

Conscience

Tells how we should behave

Ego- Ideal

Our ideal self

Erogenous Zones, Sigmund Freud

___________ are zones of Psychosexual development according to ___________.

Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital

Stages of Psychosexual Development
(in order)

Stopping Breastfeeding

Primary conflict at the Oral Stage is

Fixation

Not resolving a psychosexual conflict at an early age will result in a halt in development, and a ___________ at the given stage.

Oral Aggresion

The fixation associated with the oral stage results in

dependent

Having an orally _________ fixation results in a person being gullible

Toilet Training

Primary conflict at the Anal Stage?

Anal Retentive/Expulsive

A fixation at the Anal stage will result in a person being

Oedipus Complex

The conflict for BOYS during the Phallic Stage is the

Elektra Complex

The conflict for GIRLS during the Phallic Stage is the

Identification with the Father

The result of a BOY avoiding fixation at the Phallic Stage is

Identification with the Mother

The result of a GIRL avoiding fixation at the Phallic Stage is

Latency

No sexual feelings arise during the __________ stage.

Genital, Adolescence

This stage begins at the the onset of ___________, and allows for the formation of complete human relationships.

Repression

The minds standard defense mechanism, avoid thinking about certain thoughts

Defense Mechanisms

How the ego copes with anxiety

Denial

This defense mechanism is also known as extreme repression, where certain thoughts cannot possibly exist.

Projection

This defense mechanism puts our own feelings/disagreeable qualities on to others

Reaction Formation

This defense mechanism causes us to react oppositely to a given stimuli
(We cannot kill our kid, so we show him alot of affection)

Adams, Homophobia

In a study by __________, _________ is thought to be a reaction formation to ones own homosexuality.

Regression

This defense mechanism converts us back to a younger self to avoid the issue
(Characteristic of whining, thumb sucking, and tantrums)

Rationalization

This defense mechanism explains away shortcomings to maintain self esteem

Displacement

This defense mechanism causes us to take out our anger on sources other than the primary stimuli

Identification

This defense mechanism helps us identify with the behavior of someone we feel is superior

Sublimation

This defense mechanism transfers unethical thoughts into positive actions

Karen Horney

Discovered women's gender anxiety comes from power envy not penis envy

Neo-Freudians, sex

________ Revised Freud's theories on the basis that they were too focused on _________

Carl Jung

Theorized on collective unconcious, archetypes, and extroversion and interversion

Alfred Adler

Theorized on the aspect that humans are constantly striving for superiority

drives

According to Adler, sense of inferiority __________ behavior

Karen Horney

Theorized that basic anxiety is a motivating factor for behavior

Collective Unconscious

There is a _______________ that spans across human history and culture according to Carl Jung

Archetype

Important aspects of human existence carried across history

Fairytales

Example of an Archetype

Dimensions of Personality

Extroversion and Introversion are ________________ in which a person is either sociable or anti-social

Maslow

This psychologist believed that personality can be described in two ways. Either there is deficiency orientation and growth orientation

Deficiency Orientation

Always searching for imperfection

Growth Orientation

Focused on growth

Self-Actualization

Drive to fill potential

Congruence

Not acting with ____________ leads to anxiety

Trait Theory

The belief that personality is made up of a combination of different traits

Gordon Allport

Believed there are 200 personality traits divided between central, secondary, and cardinal traits

Trait

Relatively stable predisposition to behave a certain way

Central Trait

Most Observable Traits
(according to Allport)

Secondary Trait

Not as constant as central trait
(according to Allport)

Cardinal Trait

Single dominant, defining trait
(according to Allport)

Cardinal Trait

Not everyone has a _________________.

Raymond Cattell

Used factor analysis to come up with 16 factors of personality, divided into source traits and surface traits

Source Trait

An underlying fundamental dimension of personality
(According to Cattell)

Surface Trait

Superficial Trait based on combination of Source Traits
(According to Cattell)

The Big Five

Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism

universal

The Big 5 are predominantly _________________

Openness

Relates to how open people are to new experiences

Conscientiousness

Relates to how reliable/organized a person is

Extraversion

Relates to how outgoing a person is

Agreeableness

Relates to a person's attitudes toward others

Neuroticism

Relates to a person's emotional stability

not

A person low in openness is ___________ open to new experiences

high

A person __________ in conscientiousness is likely to be professionally successful

High/Low

A person ________ in extraversion is likely to be sociable; A person _________ in extraversion is likely to be shy/passive

Low/High

A person _____________ in neuroticism is likely to be emotionally stable; a person ________ in neuroticism is likely to be emotionally instable

Hans Eysenck

Researcher that believed there are 3 dimensions to personality

Extraversion, Neuroticism, Psychoticism

3 Dimensions to personality according to Eysenck

Extraversion

reflects internal level of arousal
(according to Eysenck)

Low, easily

_______ levels of arousal reflect a person is extremely sociable because that person is not ___________ aroused
(according to Eysenck)

Neuroticism

Reflects how an individuals mood changes
(according to Eysenck)

Psychoticism

reflects a person's impulse control
(according to Eysenck)

Low/High

A person with _________ levels of psychoticism is passive; a person with _____________ levels is impulsive

Jeffery Gray

Believed there are 2 dimensions to personality, the BAS/BIS

Behavior Activation System (BAS)

Activates Behavior in Extroverts

Behavior Inhibition Sytem (BIS)

Inhibits certain behavior in Introverts

Bandura, Rotter

2 Psychologists that focused on the Social Cognitive Aspect of Personality

Self-System

We act in a way that reinforces our perceived self-esteem
(Bandura)

Locus of Control

Either Internal or External- reflects our motives for certain behavior
(Rotter)

Expectancy

How much our decisions impact others
(Rotter)

Internal

Wanting to do well on in school because you want to have a good job is an example of an _____________ locus of control

External

Wanting to do well in school because you will get paid money to do so is an example of an ___________ locus of control

Projective Tests

Project Personality into Answer

Rorschach Ink Blot Test

A Projective Test that requires the subject to analyze random ink images

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

A Projective Test that requires the subject to analyze a definite, wordless image

not

Projective Tests are ________ very reliable

MMPI-2

Most reliable Self Report Test

MMPI-2

A self report test that attempts to identify different psychological disorders

NEO-PI

The Big 5 Inventory

TAT

The ________________ is more valid than the Rorschac Ink Blot Test

Congruence

The Compliance between the ego ideal and the actual self

Reticular Formation

The part of the brain that regulates arousal
(Eysenck)

Factor Analysis

Sorting trait terms into smaller factors

Self-Report

Asks a series of questions that ask people to indicate which statements accurately describe their own behavior/mental state

Humanists

These psychologists believe in the self-actualizing tendency

Existential Approach

Regards personality as governed by an individuals ongoing choices and decisions in the context of the realities of life and death

Rollo May, Victor Frankl

Two examples of Existential Psychologists

Reciprocal Determinism, Bandura

A person's behavior is determined by personal factors and social behaviors + experimenter

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