Psych Exam 4 Study Guide Multiple Choice

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1) A person contemplating surgery to alter his or her bodily appearance to that of the opposite sex
is thinking about becoming a(n) ________.

Transsexual

2) If gender differences in cognition are decreasing, this is probably due to ________.

none of these

3) In which phase does the refractory period occur for men?

resolution

4) Raphael has only dated men in the past. He stated that in high school, he began to notice that hewas only attracted to men. As a result, he has been in a relationship with a man for the past 5 years and is very happy. Raphael is considered ________ in terms of his sexual orientation.

homosexual

5) Robert has been charged with exposing himself while picking up food at a local drive-through restaurant several times. Due to going against cultural and socially accepted norms, his behavior
is consistent ________.

sexual deviance

6) Most recent surveys indicate that ________ of men and ________ of women have had at least one homosexual experience.

22%;17%

7) MRI technology has demonstrated that women listen with ________ of the brain.

both hemisphere

8) Sydney was leaving with friends after a fun night out drinking. As she was walking to her car, a man wearing a brown trench coat approached. He opened his coat and was completely naked underneath which startled Sydney, shocked at his behavior. Sydney was "flashed" by a person who likely achieves sexual arousal through ________.

exhibitionism

9) Which method has the highest level of protection against sexually transmitted diseases?

abstinence

10) Having more than one partner ________.

increases your chance of contracting a sexually transmitted disease

11) Keisha is preparing to go swimming at the city pool. She is putting on her swim suit in a
dressing room provided by the park, and notices that someone is looking over the dressing room walls. She grabs her towel and quickly runs from the dressing room and sees a man running away. After police are called, she is informed that she is the 4th victim of this "peeping Tom" over the past week. The "peeping Tom" is likely to suffer from ________.

voyeurism

12) ________ is a disorder in which the person either prefers to, or must, achieve sexual arousal and fulfillment through sexual behavior that is unusual or not socially acceptable.

Paraphilia

13) In the middle to late 1900s, medical professionals typically recommended that intersexed children ________.

not be operated on until after puberty and the child be consulted about what outcome he or she wanted

14) The work of Simon LeVay on the brain structures of homosexual humans led to similar findings with ________.

monkeys

15) What percentage of men and women report some sort of sexual dysfunction?

30-40 percent

16) Which term has the most negative connotation in our culture?

sissy

17) Research has shown that heterosexuality is generally accepted across all cultures. Research also suggests that ________.

all of the above are true

18) Which female sex organ or process is present at birth?

vagina

19) ________ is the process by which people learn their culture's preferences and expectations for proper "masculine" and "feminine" behaviors.

gender typing

20) Which of the following is a female primary sex characteristic?

vagina

21) According to the Janus Report, what percentage of females reported premarital sex?

46%

22) According to the Janus report, approximately ________ percent of men and ________ percent of women reported to be predominantly homosexual.

9%;5%

23) Which cause of a sexually transmitted disease is hardest to treat?

viral

24) Psychology has many terms for human sexuality concepts. What is an alternative term for hermaphroditism?

intersex

25) The first symptoms of AIDS are often mistaken for ________.

the flu

26) Dante's penis has experienced contractions and is about to release seminal fluid. He is likely to be in the ________ stage of the sexual response cycle according to Masters and Johnson.

orgasm

27) LeVay discovered that an area of the ________ is three times larger in males than females, and two to three times larger in heterosexual males as compared to homosexual males in his controversial research study.

hypothalamus

28) At about age 12, a girl comes to her mother and says that she is going through a great deal of bodily changes. Most likely the girl is talking about ________.

development of secondary sex characteristics

29) AIDS CANNOT be transmitted through ________.

tear

30) Ben has finished having sex and has lost his erection and his scrotal sack has begun to thin
again. He is likely to be in the ________ stage of the sexual response cycle according to Masters and Johnson.

resolution

31) Research shows that the ________ married couples are, the less interest and pleasure they take in sexual activity, and the more they experience guilt, shame, and sexual inhibitions.

more convervative and traditional

32) The growth spurt in female puberty usually starts at around ________ years of age.

10-12

33) A young boy develops facial and chest hair, pubic hair, and an enlarged Adam's apple. This
happens because puberty is stimulating the development of his ________.

secondary sex characteristics

34) Sexual problems that result from physical causes are referred to as ________.

organic dysfunctions

35) Shallice has had several sexual partners in the past year. What is the BEST advice you could give her about how she can lower the odds of contracting a sexually transmitted disease in the future?

all of these are good advice

36) Melvin has finished having sex approximately 30 minutes ago and his partner is interested in having sex again. However, Melvin is not able to achieve an erection. Melvin is in the ________.

refractory period

37) Obtaining sexual arousal and gratification through watching other people engage in sexual
behavior or undress is known as ________.

voyeruism

38) MRI technology has demonstrated that men listen with ________.

the left hemisphere of the brain

39) The Janus Report surveyed ________.

all of the choices are correct

40) What have twin studies told us about sexual orientation?

although supporting a genetic influence on sexual orienation, they do not rule out environmental influences as a contributer

41) Shaquilla says that all men are insensitive and unemotional. She is probably expressing a
________.

gender sterotype

42) The first symptoms of AIDS are often mistaken for ________.

the flu

43) Which of the following is caused by a virus?

AIDS

44) Rashid has just had an orgasm. However, his partner is still excited and wants Rashid to
continue his sexual activity. Unfortunately, Rashid has lost his erection. Rashid is probably now in the ________.

refractory period

45) Rashid and Tawana are watching the classic TV show Leave It to Beaver. After watching the show, they decide to play. Rashid says he will be Ward Cleaver and Tawana should play June Cleaver. This play situation would be best explained by ________.

social learning theory

46) Research on differences in male and female brain activity has found that ________,

when doing language tasks, women's brains tend to be more active in the right hemisphere than men

47) Traditional views of gender roles are more likely found in ________.

collectivist cultures

48) Based on the studies of girls who were exposed to androgens before birth, which of the
following statements is true?

when these girls grew up, they became more typically "female" in their desire for marriage and motherhood

49) According to fMRI images taken when both men and women were shown erotic images,
researchers found that the amygdala and hypothalamus areas of the limbic system were
________.

more strongly actie in men than women

50) Masters and Johnson recommended a technique called ________ for treatment of premature ejaculation.

sensate focus

51) According to studies, people who are involved in a religion and attend services regularly are more likely to ________.

live onger than do those who do not have religious belies

52) Which of the following life events is not found in the list of major life events that cause a
significant amount of stress according to the social readjustment rating scale (SRRS)?

all of the above are found on the SSRS

53) Which psychologist is credited with proposing the general adaptation syndrome?

Hans Selye

54) The coping method that involves changing the way you feel or emotionally react to a stressor is known as ________.

emotion-focused coping

55) Levon has a Type B personality. Which of the following is most likely?

Levon is slow to anger

56) A student who is failing but does not study because she refuses to believe that the instructor will really assign her an "F" at the end of the term is using the psychological defense mechanism of ________.

denial

57) The coping method that involves changing the way you feel or emotionally react to a stressor is known as ________.

emotional-focused coping

58) During the alarm stage of the general adaptation syndrome, all of the following EXCEPT ________ are reactions that can be seen.

hemmorrhaging

59) Which of the following is a mental series of exercises meant to refocus attention and achieve a trance-like state of consciousness?

mediation

60) Research by Teresa Amabile shows that time pressure has ________ impact on one's ability to be creative.

a negative

61) All of the following are sources of stress EXCEPT ______.

aggression

62) The term hassles refers to ________.

minor annoyances of everyday life

63) What is the term for the network of friends, family members, neighbors, coworkers, and others who can offer help to a person in need?

social support system

64) Which of the following is an example of an avoidance-avoidance conflict?

a student has to decide whether to turn in an unfinished paper and receive a failing grade or hand it in late and lose many points

65) Research by Teresa Amabile shows that time pressure has ________ impact on one's ability to be creative.

a negative

66) Which of the following is the type of conflict that occurs when a person must choose between
two goals that have both positive and negative aspects?

double approach-avoidance

67) Which of the following is the most stressful of all conflicts, causing many people to go back and forth between one decision and the other, or be unable to decide for or against the event?

approach-avoidance

68) Which major life event on the Social Readjustment Rating Scale has the highest number of life change units?

death of a spouse

69) If Drew is practicing a relaxation technique called receptive meditation, he is most likely
________.

trying to expand conscious outward

70) Which part of the nervous system reacts when the human body is subjected to stress?

sypmathetic

71) Membership in a religious organization and regular attendance at religious functions ________.

can be a vital part of a person's social support system

72) Research has consistently shown that having a good ________ is of critical importance in a person's ability to cope with stressors.

social support system

73) Which of the following statements correctly describes the rate of PTSD among combat-exposed military personnel since 2001?

the rate of PTSD has tripled since 2001

74) The stress resulting from the need to change and adapt to the dominant, or majority, culture is called ________.

acculturative stress

75) Which of the following statements best encapsulates the relationship between stress and physical illness according to psychoneuroimmunologists?

stres compromises the body's immune system leaing a person vulnerabe to illnes

76) According to Hans Selye, resistance to stress is lowest at the ________ stage of the general adaptation syndrome.

exhaustion

77) When looking at a glass that is neither completely full nor completely empty, a(n) ________ might say "that glass is half full," while a(n) ________ might say " no, that glass is half empty!"

optimist;pessimist

78) ________ occurs when a person is blocked or prevented from achieving a desired goal or
fulfilling a perceived need.

frustration

79) According to Lazarus, our first task when faced with a potential stressor is to estimate its
severity and to determine whether it is a challenge or threat. This evaluation is referred to as ________.

primary appraisal

80) The ________ nervous system returns the body to normal, day-to-day functioning after a
stressful period.

parasympathetic

81) ________ measures the amount of stress in a college student's life over a one-year period
resulting from major life events.

college undergraduate stress scale (CUSS)

82) Sasha is experiencing stress in her workplace that is causing her to feel dissatisfied and pessimistic. As a result, she has a desire to quit her job. Sasha is experiencing ________.

eustress

83) One of the most startling implications of Selye's theory is that ________.

psychological stress may cause diseases such as ulcers and high blood presure

84) Which of the following statements is criticism that one might legitimately make about the humanistic perspective of personality?

it paints too rosey a picture of humanity. ignoring negative aspects of human nature

85) According to Hofstede's dimensions of cultural personality, cultures that are ________ are assertive and competitive.

high in uncertainty avoidance

86) What did Gordon Allport think about traits?

he thought they were wired into the nervous system

87) There were three friends. Maybe you've heard of them! Harry was rational, logical, and cunning. Hermione was rule oriented, moral, and always ethical. Ron was pleasure seeking, found it hard to delay gratification, and usually just did what he wanted. According to Freud, Harry was mostly ________.

ego

88) Frank and Gina are looking at an abstract painting in a museum. Gina describes objects and people she thinks she sees in the painting. Frank says, "It's a bunch of paint thrown on a canvas." Gina responds, "No, there is so much here that you just don't see." During lunch they agree that their experience reminds them of what concept they learned in introductory psychology?

projective testing

89) What are the Big Five personality traits?

openness,conscientiousness,extraversion,agreeableness, and neuroticism

90) The Freudian stage in which boys must resolve the Oedipus complex is the ________ stage.

phallic

91) Carl Jung's term for recurring themes that have been important to humans in many cultures and settings since prehistoric times, such as the concepts of mother, hero, or villain, is ________ .

archetypes

92) According to Freud's theory of personality development, there are ________ stages that each person must pass through.

5

93) According to Freud, the second part of the personality is the ego, which gets its name from the Latin word for ________.

"I"

94) The main advantage of personality inventories over projective tests and interviews is ________.

inventories are standardized

95) Which of the Freudian stages of personality development begins around puberty?

genital

96) You are reading an article that critiques Freud's theory. Which of the following could be the title?

"Sometimes a cigar is just a cigar"

97) When assessing personality, many psychologists take the eclectic view, which means they ________.

...

98) According to Albert Bandura, a person's belief about his or her skills and ability to perform certain behaviors is known as ________.

self-efficacy

99) Carl Rogers believed people question themselves and experience negative effects on their self-concept when they receive ________.

conditional positive regard

100) Research on ________ supports the hypothesis that personality differences are due in part to genetic differences.

the heritability of traits

101) Many have compared Freud's idea of the mind to an iceberg. If that were the case and you were standing on the deck of a ship in Alaska, what part of the mind would you see above the water?

ego

102) In which psychosexual stage do sexual interests reawaken and become stronger?

genital

103) Which of the following statements is a claim often made by critics of projective testing?

the interpretation of projective tsts is too subjective

104) Someone who was interested in measuring a person's source traits, as described by Raymond Cattell, would use the ________.

sixteen personality factors questionnaire (16PF)

105) According to Freud, during the first 18 months of life, the dominant source of sensual pleasure is the ________.

mouth

106) Which of the following is caused by a virus?

genital warts

107) According to research, the majority of gay or bisexual college students report they first became aware of their sexual orientation in ________.

high school...

108) The first phase of the sexual response is ________.

excitment...

109) ________ consists of the physiological changes in the sex organs and reproductive system that occur during adolescence, lasting about four years.

puberty...

110) One secondary male sex characteristic is ________.

facial and chest hair...

111) Gender schema theory is based on ________.

social learning theory...

112) Which gender is more likely to talk to other members of that gender about current events?

male...

113) Which is NOT one of the usual criticisms of Kinsey's methodologies?

most of the volunteers were homosexual...

114) When children observe their same-sex parents behaving in certain ways and imitate that behavior, a psychologist uses which theory to explain the situation?

social learning theory...

115) Those with AIDS are likely to suffer from all of the following opportunistic infections EXCEPT ________.

mononucleosis...

116) Fifteen year old Latisha feels that she has been a "boy trapped in a girl's body" for as long as she can remember. She is learning about sexual reassignment surgery from her mother, who supports her daughter after taking her to a doctor who diagnosed her as having ________.

gender identity disorter...

117) A foul-smelling, cloudy discharge from the penis and burning upon urination are symptomatic of ________.

gonorrhes...

118) Shanice suffers pain during intercourse. She is suffering from ________.

dyspareunia...

119) When men and women view erotic pictures, the ________ are more strongly activated in men than women.

amygdala and hypothalamus...

120) If homosexuality were definitively found to be due to genetic or hormonal influences, then
________.

all of these are true...

121) An assessment that measures the amount of stress in a person's life resulting from major life events over one year is called the ________.

social readjustment rating scale...

122) Events that cause a stress reaction are referred to as ________.

stressors...

123) Which of the following is one reason why living in poverty is stressful?

increased rates of disabilities due to poor prenatal care...

124) The Framingham Heart Study found that the risk of coronary heart disease ________.

for women who work and are also Type A is four times that of Type B women who work...

125) Thomas Holmes and Richard Rahe developed the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) to measure change due to ________.

major life events...

126) For someone who likes both movies and concerts, choosing between going to one or the other represents an ________ conflict.

appraoch-approach events...

127) Kirima has her doctorate in health psychology. Which of the following research questions might she be most likely to investigate?

why are college students ore prone to doing drugs when they take harder classes...

128) Soldiers who break down in the battlefield often cope with their situation by blocking out all
memories of their behavior and their situation. This phenomenon is an example of ________.

repression...

129) Bettina is 6 feet tall and desires to become a ballerina. Unfortunately, she is having difficulty
being accepted into a ballet troupe because of her height. Bettina is experiencing ________.

external frustration...

130) The practice of behaviors and lifestyle choices that promote both physical and mental health is called ________.

wellness...

131) According to Freud, rationality and logical thinking and reasoning are controlled by the
________.

ego...

132) For Freud, the seething cauldron of unconscious urges and desires continuously seeking expression is the ________.

id...

133) Albert Bandura is to self-efficacy as Julian Rotter is to ________

control...

134) You are about to undergo delicate brain surgery that requires great skill on the part of the
surgeon. As the surgical team wheels you into the operating room, you hope the surgeon has a
high level of ________.

self-efficacy...

135) Monozygotic twins are ________, while dizygotic twins are ________.

identital;fraternal...

136) According to Jung, the memories and behavior patterns inherited from past generations are part of the ________.

collective unconscious...

137) What is the term for the condition in which a person is born with both male and female sex
organs?

hermaphroditism...

138) According to the Janus Report, approximately what percentage of males reported extramarital affairs?

40%...

139) Countries like the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, and England are more likely to have ________.

a collectivist society...

140) Which characteristic is NOT usually considered part of the male gender stereotype?

emotional...

141) Which of the following are the three terms used to describe the way in which hardy people
differ from many other Type A people and others who suffer more ill effects due to stress?

commitment, control, challenge...

142) ________ is the term used to describe the physical, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral
responses to events that are threatening or challenging.

stress...

143) Ken wants to go to law school because he believes being a lawyer will bring him prestige and a good income. However, he is not sure he should attend because he is very concerned about the hard work law school will involve and the money it will cost. Ken is faced with a(n) ________ conflict.

approach-avoidance...

144) Which two researchers are associated with the Five Factor model, also known as the Big Five?

costa and mccrae...

145) Which of the following is correct concerning cross-cultural studies on trait theories?

evidence for the five trait dimensions has been found in several cultures...

146) James obtained sexual arousal and pleasure by wearing women's clothing. He has a condition known as ________.

transvestism...

147) Which parts of the nervous system are associated with the general adaptation syndrome?

sympathetic and parasympathetic...

148) The superego develops ________.

during the preschool years...

149) Steve's penis is becoming even more erect and has secreted a few drops of fluid after beginning to have sex. He is likely to be in the ________ stage of the sexual response cycle according to Masters and Johnson.

plateau...

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