deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional behavior patterns.
psychological disorders are sicknesses
behavior arises from the interaction of nature and nurture
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition)
able to think rationally and function socially
bizarre behavior and thinking, severely debilitating
distressing and persistent
4 Criteria of Psychological Disorders
behavior is: A typical, disturbing, maladaptive (harmful), unjustifiable
Types of Anxiety disorders
Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Phobic Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
Types of Dissociative disorders
Dissociative fugue, Dissociative amnesia, Dissociative Identity Disorder
Types of Mood disorders
Major depression, Bipolar disorder
Conversion disorder, Hysterical paralysis
disorganized thinking, delusion (beliefs), disturbed perceptions (hallucinations), inappropiate emotions and gestures
Freud's theory of personality and therapeutic technique that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts
in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material
in psychoanalysis, the patients free talk saying everything that comes to mind
in psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight.
in psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent).
emphasized people's inherent potential for self fulfillment - looks at present/future, consciousness, responsibility of actions, and personal grwoth
Person-centered Therapy (client-centered)
uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients' growth.
empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers' client-centered therapy
Unconditional Positive Regard
according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety.
an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation.
an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions).
an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations.
Dissociative Identity Disorder (Multiple Personality)
a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Also called multiple personality disorder.
a mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities.
a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania. (Formerly called manic-depressive disorder.)
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience
a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state.
therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors.
a behavior therapy procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors; based on classical conditioning. Includes exposure therapies and aversive conditioning.
a type of counterconditioning that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias.
a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol).
an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats.
therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions.
Activating event > Beliefs > consequences
Group and family therapy
therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members; attempts to guide family members toward positive relationships and improved communication.
selective loss of memory, triggered by extreme sterss
Flight and forgetting
Freud's theory that anxiety is onverted to specific paralysis
psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning.
stimulus is presented after behavior
assumes that "no one and nothing is supreme," that "self-gratification" should be encouraged, and that "unequivocal love, commitment, service, and...fidelity to any interpersonal commitment, especially marriage, leads to harmful consequences
analyzed the dreams of people with depression, he found recurring negative themes of loss, rejection, and abandonment that extended into their waking thoughts
Effectiveness of psychotherapy
a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies.
developed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire
hope for demoralized people; a new perspective on oneself and the world; and an empathic, trusting, caring relationship.
prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient's nervous system.
the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior.
surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior.
a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient.