Sociology Exam 1: People

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People

Peter Berger

Described the sociological perspective as seeing the general in the particular

Lillian Rubin

- Did a classic study on women's hopes for marriages
- Found that higher-income women typically expected the men they married to be sensitive to others, to talk readily, and to share feelings and experiences
- Found that lower-income women has very different expectations, and were looking for men who did not drink too much, were not violent, and held steady jobs

Emile Durkheim

- One of sociology's pioneers
- Found that some categories of people were more likely than others to take their own lives
- Men, protestants, wealthy people, and unmarried had much higher suicide rates than women, catholics, jews, the poor, and married people
- Explained the differences in terms of social integration: categories of people with strong social ties had low suicide rates, and more individualistic categories of people had high suicide rates
- Illustrates the power of society to shape even our most private choices

C. Wright Mills

- Illustrated that periods of crisis make everyone feel a little off balance, encouraging people to use the sociological perspective (Great Depression)
- Believed that using what he called the "Sociological Imagination" (i.e. "the economy collapsed, there are no jobs to be found!")helps people understand not only their society but their own lives because the two are closely related

Lenore Weitzman

- Did a study on how divorce affects people's income
- Discovered that women who leave marriages typically experience a dramatic loss of income
- States have laws passed that have increased women's claims to marital properties and enforced fathers' obligations to provide support for women raising their children

C. Wright Mills #2

-Explained that the sociological perspective that turns a "personal problem" into a "public issue"
- As we come to see how society affects us, we may support society as it is, or we may set out with others to change it

Alexis de Tocqueville

- French social analyst
- Thought the changes in society brought on by the French Revolution were so great that they amounted to "nothing short of the regeneration of the whole human race"

August Comte

- French social thinker
- Coined the term 'sociology' to describe a new way of looking at a society --> this makes sociology one of the youngest academic disciplines
- Saw sociology as the product of a 3-stage historical development
1) Theological stage: earliest; from beginning of human history to the end of the European Middle Ages; people took a religious view that society expressed God's will
2) Metaphysical Stage: middle; dawn of the Renaissance in the 15th century, stage of history in which people saw society as a natural rather than supernatural system
3) Scientific Stage: began with the work of early scientists
- Also applied the scientific approach to the study of society --> 'positivism' = he believed that society operates according to its own laws, much as the physical world operates according to gravity and other laws of nature

Thomas Hobbes

Suggested that society reflected not the perfection of God so much as the failings of a selfish human nature

Karl Marx

- Troubled by the striking social inequality of industrial society
- Wanted a new discipline os sociology not just to understand society but to bring about change toward social justice

Robert K. Merton

- Expanded the understanding of the concept of social function by pointing out that any social structure probably has many functions, some more obvious than others
- Distinguished between manifest functions and latent functions
- Also recognized that the effects of social structure are not all good, and certainly not good for everybody (social dysfunction)

Harriet Martineau

- First woman sociologist
- Translated writings of Auguste Comte from French to English
- This allowed her to make her own published writings, documenting the evils of slavery and argued for laws to protect factory workers, defending workers' right to unionize
- More concerned with the position of women in society who fought for changes in education policy so that women could look forward to more in life than marriage and raising children

Jame Addams

- Sociological pioneer
- Helped Hull House (Chicago house that provided assistant to immigrant families)
- Chose the life of a public activist
- Spoke on issues involving immigration and the pursuit of peace
- Awarded Nobel Peace Prize

Burghardt Du Bois

- One of sociology's pioneers
- Saw sociology as the key to solving society's problems especially racial inequality
- Spoke against racial separation and was a founding member of the NAACP

Ida Wells Barnett

- Born to slave parents but became a teacher and a journalist and then newspaper publisher
- Campaigned tirelessly for racial equality and especially to put an end to lynching of black people
- Wrote and lectured about racial inequality throughout her life

William Edward Burghardt Du Bois #2

- Earned the first doctorate awarded by Harvard to a person of color
- Believed that sociologists should try to solve society's problems
- Studied the black community, spoke out against racial inequality, and served as a founding member of the NAACP

Max Weber

- His thinking roots the symbolic-interaction approach
- Emphasized the need to understand a setting from the point of view of the people in the setting

George Herbert Mead

- Micro-level sociology
- Explored how our personalities develop as a result of social experience

Erving Goffman

- Dramaturgical Analysis: how we resemble actors on stage as we play out our various roles

George Homans and Peter Blau

- Social-Exchange Analysis: social interaction is guided by what each person stands to gain and lose from others

Lois Benjamin

- Asked 100 successful African Americans across the country how race affected their lives.
- Found evidence that even among privileged African Americans racism remains a problem

Max Weber #2

- Influential german sociologist
- Expected that people would select their research topics according to their personal beliefs and interests
- Cautioned researchers to be 'value-free' in their investigations
- Only by controlling their personal feelings and opinions can researchers study the world as it is rather than tell us how they think it should be
- This is what sets science apart from politics
- Believed that the key to interpretive sociology lies in 'Verstehen' (german word for understanding)

Karl Marx #2

- Founded critical orientation
- Rejected the idea that society exists as a 'natural' system with a fixed order
- To assume the above, he claimed, is the same as saying that society cannot be changed
- Scientific sociology, from this point of view, favors the status quo

Margrit Eichler

Identified the five ways in which gender can shape research
1) Androcentricity
2) Overgeneralizing
3) Gender Blindness
4) Double Standards
5) Interference

Maureen Giovannini

- Studied a small community in Italy
- Found that many men treated her as a woman rather than a researcher
- Some thought it was wrong for any single woman to speak privately with a man
- Others denied Giovannini access to places they considered off-limits to women

Philip Zimbardo

- Suspected, does the prison itself somehow generate violent behavior?
- Hypothesis: the prison violence is rooted in the social character of the jails themselves, not in the personalities of the guards and prisoners
- Devised the "Stanford Country Prison" experiment
- Prison setting = IV
- Violence = DV
- Experiment: Placed ad in local newspaper for volunteers, created 'fake' prison, random assignment, 2 weeks long
-Both guards and prisoners became embittered and hostile towards each other.
- Guards humiliated prisoners by assigning them embarrassing tasks
- The prisoners resisted and insulted the guards
- By the end of the first week, the situation got so bad that the experiment was cancelled
- His hypothesis proved itself true

Frederick Lorenz and Brent Bruton

- Found that the number of hours per week students say they study for a college course depends on the options offered to them
- When presented with options ranging from one hour to nine hours or more = 75% say they studied four hours or less per week
- When subjects in a different group were given choices ranging from four hours or less to twelve hours or longer, they suddenly became more studious

William Foote White

- Young grad student at Harvard
- Fascinated by the lively street life of a nearby, rundown section of Boston
- Led him to carry out years of participant observation in this neighborhood he called "Cornerville"
- Hard for him to gain entry, found a "key informant"

E. Digby Baltzell

- Award study 'Puritan Boston and Quaker Philadelphia'
- Good example for how a researcher can use available date to do historical research
- Discovered that most of New England's great achievers had grown up in and around the city of Boston
- Drew inspiration from Max Weber
- Religious differences between Boston (Puritan- believed in the pursuit of excellence and public achievement) and Philadelphia (Quakers- believed in equality and avoided public notice)
- Approach uses scientific logic and uses the interpretive approach by showing people understood their world
- Illustrates the inductive logical model, his data showed that one region of the country (boston) has produced more high achievers than another (philadelphia)
- He worked upward from ground level observations to high-flying theory that religious values were a key factor in shaping people's attitudes toward achievement

Max Weber #3

- German Sociologist
- Argued that a regions record of achievement was influenced by it's major religious beliefs

Robin Williams

- Sociologist
- Identified 10 values that are widespread in the US and viewed by any people as central to our way of life:
1) Equal opportunity
2) Achievement and success
3) Material Comfort
4) Activity and Work
5) Practicality and Efficiency
6) Progress
7) Science
8) Democracy and free enterprise
9) Freedom
10) Racism and group superiority

William Graham Sumner

- Recognized that some norms are more important to our lives than others
- Coined the term 'mores'

William Ogburn

- Observed that technology moves quickly, generating new elements of material culture (things) faster than non-material culture (ideas) can keep up with them
- 'Cultural Lag'

George Murdock

- Compared hundreds of cultures
- Identified dozens of cultural universals
- Common Element: family, which functions everywhere to control sexual reproduction and to oversee the care of children
- Funeral rites are also found everywhere, because all human communities cope with the reality of death
- Jokes are another cultural universal, serving as a safe means of releasing social tensions

John B. Watson

- Psychologist
- Developed a theory called behaviorism
- Held that behavior is not instinctive but learned, thus people everywhere are equally human, differing only in their cultural patterns
- NURTURE not nature

Harry and Margaret Harlow

- Psychologists
- Study that placed monkeys- whose behavior can be similar to human behavior- in various conditions of social isolation
- Found that complete isolation (with adequate nutrition) for even 6 months seriously disturbed the monkey's development
- When returned to their group, these monkeys were passive, anxious, and fearful
- Important for adults to cradle infants affectionately
- Infant monkeys could recover from about 3 months of isolation, but by 6 months, isolation caused irreversible emotional and behavioral damage

Sigmund Freud

- Theory of Psychoanalysis
- Model of human personality --> id, superego, and ego

Jean Piaget

- Studied human cognition, how people think and understand
- Believed that human development involved both biological maturation and gaining social experience
- Identified 4 stages of cognitive development:
1) Sensorimotor
2) Preoperational
3) Concrete Operational
4) and Formal Operational

Lawrence Kohlberg

- Built on Piaget's work to study moral reasoning, how individuals judge situations as right or wrong
1) First judge rightness in preconventional terms, according to our individual needs
2) Conventional moral reasoning takes account of parental attitudes and cultural norms
3) Postconventional reasoning allows us to criticize society itself

Carol Gilligan

- Compared the moral development of girls and boys and concluded that the two sexes use different standards of righteousness
- Found that males rely on abstract standards of rightness= justice perspective
- Females look at the effect of decisions on relationships= care and responsibility perspective

George Herbert Mead #2

- Developed a theory of social behaviorism to explain how social experience develops an individual's personality
- The self comes from social experience and is partly self-directed (and I) and partly guided by society )the me)
- Infants yet to form the self can only imitate others; later the self develops through play and games and eventually includes the generalized other

Charles Horton Cooley

Looking Glass Self: to mean a self-image on how we think others see us

Erik H. Erikson

- Took broader view of socialization, explained that we face challenges throughout the life course
Stage 1- Infancy: The challenge of trust
Stage 2- Toddlerhood: the challenge of autonomy (vs. doubt and shame)
Stage 3- Preschool: the challenge of initiative ( vs. guilt)
Stage 4- Preadolescence: the challenge of industriousness (vs. inferiority)
Stage 5- Adolescence: the challenge of gaining identity (vs. confusion)
Stage 6- Young adulthood: the challenge of intimacy (vs. isolation)
Stage 7- Middle Adulthood: the challenge of making a difference (vs. self-absorption)
Stage 8- Old Age: the challenge of integrity

Melvin Kohn

- Explains that people of lower social standing usually have limited education and perform routine jobs under close supervision
- Expecting that their kids will hold similar positions, they encourage obedience and may even use physical punishment
- Well off parents have more schooling, they usually have jobs that demand imagination and creativity, so they try to inspire the same qualities in their kids
- Consciously or not, all parents act in ways that encourage their kids to follow in their footsteps

Tom Smith

- Says there is no one factor that announces the onset of adulthood
- The results of his survey suggests that many factors play part in a young person as "grown up"
- Most important = completion of schooling

Philippe Aeires

- Historian
- Explains that the whole idea of 'childhood' is fairly new

Elisabeth Kubler-Ross

-Psychologist
- Described death as an orderly transition involving five distinct stages
1) Denial
2) Anger
3) Negotiation
4) Resignation
5) Acceptance

Erving Goffman

- Says total institutions have 3 important characteristics
1) Staff members supervise all aspects of daily life
2) Life in these institutions is controlled and standardized, with the same food, uniforms, and activities for everyone
3) Formal rules dictate when, where, and how inmates perform their daily routines

Helen Rose Fuchs Ebaugh

- Turned Psychologist after being a nun
- Studied her own experience of role exit (process by which people disengage from important social roles)
- Studied a range of 'exes'
- Exes have elements in common to their process of becoming an 'ex'
1) doubt ability to continue in a certain role
2) Imagine alternative roles, reach tipping point where they decide to pursue a new life
3) A past role may continue to influence their lives --> carry with them a self-image shaped by an earlier role, which can interfere with building the new sense of self
4) May also rebuild relationships with people who knew them from an earlier life--> new social skills must be learned

W.I. Thomas

- Thomas theorem: situations that are defined as real in their consequences

Harold Garfinkle

- Ethnomethodology: the study of the way people make sense of their everyday surroundings
- Everyday behaviors rests on a number of assumptions

JoEllen Shively

- Screened western films to men of European decent and to Native American men
- White men interpreted the films as praising rugged people striking out for the West and conquering the forces of nature
- Native American men saw the film as celebration of land and nature
- People in the two groups seem like they saw two different films

Erving Goffman

- Sociologist who studied social interaction
- Explained how people live their lives much like actors performing on a stage
-"dramaturgical analysis"

Paul Ekman

- Reports that people everywhere express 6 basic emotions: happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, and surprise
- Found that people everywhere use much the same facial expressions
- believes that some emotional responses are "wired"

Arlie Russell Hochschild

- Explains that the typical company tries to regulate not only the behavior of its employees but also their emotions

Christie Davies

- Confirmed that ethnic conflict is one driving force behind humor in most of the world

Charles Horton Cooley

Primary Group: a small social group whose members share personal and lasting relationships

Solomon Asch

- Asked subjects to match a line on Card 1 to one of the lines on Card 2
- Most subjects agreed with the wrong answers given by others in their group (CONFORMED) in order to avoid the discomfort of being different

Stanley Milgram

- Authority-Shock experiment
- Research suggests that people are likely to follow the lead of not only legitimate authority figures but also groups of ordinary individuals, even when it means hurting another person

Irving L. Janis

- Group pressure experiment
- Groupthink
- Argued that a number of US foreign policy errors resulted from group conformity among our highest-ranking political leaders

Samuel A. Stouffer

- Classic study of reference group dynamics during world war 2
- Soldiers in army units with low promotion rates were actually more positive about their chances to move ahead
- Regardless of our situation in absolute terms, we form a subjective sense of our well-being by looking at ourselves in relation to specific reference groups

Georg Simmel

- Studied social dynamics in the smallest groups
- Used term dyad- intense but unstable
- Social interaction in a dyad is typically more intense than in larger groups because neither member shares the other's attention with anyone else= unstable
- Studied triad= more stable than dyad, but can easily turn into a dyad by excluding some member

Peter Bleau

- Explored how group size, social diversity, and the physical segregation of groups affect members' behavior

Stanley Milgram #2

- Gave letters to subjects in Kansas and Nebraska intended for a few specific people in Boston who were unknown to the original subjects
- Found that target people received letters with, on average, 6 degrees of separation

Judith Kleinfeld

- Expanded on Milgrams study and pointed out that most of Milgram's letters never arrived at all, those that did were typically wealthy people.
- Concluded that rich people are far better connected across the country than ordinary women and men

Amitai Etzioni

- Identified 3 types of formal organizations, distinguished by the reasons people participate in them: utilitarian organizations, normative organizations, and coercive organizations

Max Weber

- Identified 6 key elements of idea bureaucratic organization:
1) Specialization
2) Hierarchy of Offices
3) Rules and Regulations
4) Technical Experience
5) Impersonality
6) Formal, written communcations

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