Cell Reproduction, Mitosis, and Meiosis

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Cell Cycle

the regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo

Interphase

a period between mitotic or meiotic divisions during which the cell grows, copies its DNA, and gains nutrients

Replication

the process whereby DNA makes a copy of itself before cell division

Chromatin

long strands of DNA found in the eukaryotic cell nucleus; condense to form chromosomes

Mitosis

in eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes

Nuclear Replication

Synthesis of DNA which occur in the nucleus

Chromosome

threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next

Spindle

tiny fibers that are seen in cell division

Cytokinesis

division of the cytoplasm during cell division

Cell Plate

A double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell between which the new cell wall forms during cytokenisis

Cleavage Furrow

the area of a cell membrane that pinches inward during animal cell mitosis eventually dividing the cell

Metastasis

the spread of cancer cells from their original site

Meiosis

cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms

Diploid

a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes

Haploid

a cell or organism having a single set of chromosomes

Homologous chromosomes

a pair of chromosomes which contain similar genes arranged in the same order along the chromosome

Tetrad

a pair of homologous chromosomes

Genetic recombination

the regrouping of genes in an offspring that results in a genetic makeup that is different from that of the parents

Sexual reproduction

the production of offspring through meiosis and the fertilization of a sperm and an egg

Gamete

sex cell

Egg

female sex cell

Sperm

male sex cell

Zygote

a fertilized egg

Karyotype

a picture of all the chromosomes in a cell

Autosome

any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome

Sex chromosome

a chromosome that determines the sex of an individual (23rd chromosome)

Nondisjunction

error in meiosis where homologous chromosomes fail to separate

Carcinogen

a substance that causes cancer

Mutagen

physical or chemical agent that causes mutations

Down's Syndrome

genetic disorder in which an extra chromosome 21 is passed on. Also called trisomy 21

Klinefelter's Syndrome

males with XXY sex chromosomes

Turner's Syndrome

where females only have a single x chromosome instead of two. Also called monosomy 21

Prophase

the first stage of mitosis or meiosis cell division, when the nuclear envelope breaks down and strands of chromatin form into chromosomes

Metaphase

the stage in mitosis or meiosis in which the duplicated chromosomes line up along the equator of the cell

Anaphase

the stage of meiosis or mitosis when chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the cell

Telophase

the final stage of mitosis or meiosis, during which a nuclear membrane forms around sets of new chromosomes

Binary Fission

type of asexual reproduction in which an organism replicates its DNA and divides in half, producing two identical daughter cells

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