Basic Anatomy & Physiology

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Chapter 1 - Mod F

Anatomy of the body

Structure: how it's made

Physiology of the body

Function: how it works

Body Planes

Imaginary flat surfaces that divide the body into specific sections

Frontal Plane (coronal)

Vertical cut: Dividing the body into front and back parts

Sagittal Plane (lateral)

Vertical cut: Dividing the body into right and left sides

Transverse Plane (cross-sectional)

Horizontal cut: Dividing the body into upper and lower portions

Anatomical Position

Erect, facing forward, arms at sides, palms and toes pointing forward

Prone

Lying on belly, face down

Supine

Lying on back, face up
*Supine/Spine*

Directional Terms

Help clarify location and position of organs of the body

Anterior

Front of the body

Posterior

Back of the body
*Posterior/Prostate*

Thoracic Cavity

Located in the Ventral cavity
Protects the heart and lungs
*Top of the Spine*

Divisions of the Thoracic Cavity

Pleural Cavity & Mediastinum

Pleural Cavity

Contains a double lining
Visceral pleura covers the organs
Parietal pleura lines the cavity

Mediastinum

Contains the heart
Parietal pericardial membrane lines the cavity
Visceral pericardial membrane covers the heart

Abdominopelvic Cavity

Separated from the thoracic cavity by the diaphragm

Abdominal Cavity

Contains organs that maintain homeostasis
Lined with parietal peritoneal membrane (double-folded membrane)
Has visceral peritoneal membrane that covers organs (mesentery)

Pelvic Cavity

Contains reproductive organs

Quadrants of the Abdominopelvic Cavity

Used to identify specific locations for clinical purposes
Use vertical and horizontal imaginary lines

Four clinical divisions of the Abdomionopelvic Cavity

RUQ- (right upper quadrant)
LUQ- (left upper quadrant)
RLQ- (right lower quadrant)
LLQ- (left lower quadrant)

Dorsal Cavity Divisions

Cranial cavity
Spinal cavity

Cranial Cavity includes

Brain
Meninges (membranes) covering the brain
Skull bones

Spinal Cavity includes

Meninges (membranes) covering the spinal cord
Spinal cavity formed by the vertebral bones

Divisions of the Spinal Column

Cervical- Neck
Thoracic- Chest
Lumbar- Lower back
Sacral- Hip region
Coccygeal- Hip region- Tail of the spinal cord

Organizational levels of the body

Atoms, Cells, Tissues, Organs, Systems, Organization

Atoms

Smallest particles of all living things

Cells

Fundamental unit of all things

Tissues

Made from groups of cells

Organs

Made from various tissues

Systems

Composed of organs

Organization

The individual, the "whole" person

Cell Structure

Cell membrane
Cytoplasm
Nucleus
Organelles

Cell Membrane

Encloses content of a cell

Cytoplasm

Is main fluid substance of a cell

Nucleus

Control center, houses genetic material (DNA, RNA)

Organelles

"Little Organs" that perform specialized functions: growth & reproductions, nourishment, and waste disposal

Transport Systems of the Cell

Passive
*Diffusion
*Osmosis
*Filtration
Active
*Phagocytosis
*Pinocytosis

Diffusion Passive Transport

Creates own energy for movement
Random movement of particles
*Higher concentration to the area of lower concentration
Movement is constant until equalized

Osmosis Passive Transport

Pulling of water molecules through a semipermeable (glass half full or empty) membrane
Creates own energy from movement
Higher concentration to area of lower concentration until equal

Solutions in relation to red blood cell

Hypertonic-Water leaves cell-Cell crenates (shrinks)
Hypotonic-Water enters cell-Cell hemolyzes (bursts)
Isotonic-Water enters cell-Nothing happens (same)

Filtration Passive Transport

Particles are pushed through the membrane by mechanical pressure
Creates own energy for movement
Only particles that fit openings in membrane pass through

Active Transport

Area of low concentration to areas of high concentration
Requires cellular energy (ATP)

Types of active transport

Phagocytosis "cell eating" Moving cell engulfs and eats a solid particle (bacteria)
Pinocytosis "cell drinking" Stationary cell engulfs and digests droplets of fluid

Meiosis (Cell Division)

Division of cells (gametes)
Sperm zygote (new cell) formed by joining of:
* 23 chromosomes from sperm (XY)
* 23 chromosomes from sperm (XX)
New cell has:
*46 single chromosomes for 23 pairs of chromosomes

Genetic Information

Makes us who we are

There are two types of genes

Dominant
Recessive

Genetic disorders occur because

Chromosomal abnormality
Defective genes

Causes of Gene Mutation

Viruses
Chemical Toxins
Drugs
Environment
Radiation

Inherited Disorders (familial)

Passed down from family members
Examples- Hemophilia, Tay-Sachs disease

Congenital Disorders

Born with condition; not aquired from family
Examples- Down Syndrome, Turner Syndrome

Genetic Counseling

Provides information on hereditary diseases and chances of getting them

Body Tissue Types

Epithelial Tissue, Muscle Tissue, Connective Tissue, Nervous Tissue

Epithelial Tissue

Covers surfaces, lines cavities, forms glands

Muscle Tissue

Produces movement by contracting and relaxing

Connective Tissue

Supports and forms framework of body

Nervous Tissue

Conducts nerve impulses

Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue

Covers body surfaces (skin) and lines body cavities
Has no blood supply of it's own
Repairs quickly, being replaced when worn-out
Consists of closely packed cells with little intercellular substance
Specialized cells that secrete from glands

Epithelial Tissue Glands

Exocrine & Endocrine

Exocrine

Have ducts that open onto body surface
Examples: Sweat, tears, and saliva

Endocrine

Are ductless
Discharge hormones into tissue fluid to be absorbed by capillaries
Example: Insulin

Characteristics of Muscle Tissue

Muscle tissue allows movement by contracting (shortening)
Cells are elongated, narrow, and threadlike
These tissues are referred to as muscle fibers
Fibers are arranged in bundles and surrounded by connective tissue
Description of fibers include: Striated, nonstriated, voluntary, involuntary

Types of Muscle Tissue

Skeletal Muscles, Smooth Muscles, Cardiac

Skeletal Muscles

Attached to bones by connective tissue

Smooth Muscles

Form wall of hollow organs, control diameter of blood vessels

Cardiac

Make up heart wall, responsible for pumping blood through the heart

Characteristics of Connective Tissue

Is the most abundant tissue type in the body
Provides support and protection to the body
Types of connective tissue include:
Fibrous, Bone, Cartilage, Blood

Fibrous Connective Tissue

Areolar (loose) tissue, Asipose tissue, Reticular tissue & Dense tissue

Areolar (loose) Tissue

Stretchable, found between tissues and organs

Adipose Tissue

Fat cells to help conserve heat; provide padding

Reticular Tissue

Forms a network for helping in body defenses

Dense Tissue

Anchors muscle to bone (tendons) or bone to bone (ligaments)

Cartilage

Similar to bone tissue but more flexible

Types of Cartilage

Hyaline Cartilage- Supports rings of bronchi, covers ends of bone
Fibrocartilage- Acts as shock absorber between vertebrae; strongest, most durable
Elastic Cartilage- Is most flexible; found in tip of nose, external ear

Characteristics of Nerve Tissue

Most highly organized tissue in the body
Consists of:
Neurons (nerve cells)- carry impulses throughout body
Glia Cells- provides nutrition and support to the neurons

Characteristics of Organs

Composed of two or more tissue types
Perform specific functions
Can occur in pairs (ovaries, eyes)
Can continue functioning even if damaged

Body Systems

Organized grouping of structures that perform a similar function
Made up of organs and tissues

Body Systems

Include: Muscular, urinary, respiratory, digestive, endocrine, reproductive, integumentary, nervous, circulatory, lymphatic, and skeletal

Organism

Last structural level
"whole" person

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