Circulation and Gas Exchange

Created by mskambria 

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Why is the circulatory system necessary?

Transportation; transports blood throughout body

Diffusion

Movement of molecules to high concentration to low concentration

Passive Transportation

Movement of molec without using energy (ATP)

Osmosis

Diffusion of H20 across a semi permeable membrane

Open Circulatory

Hemolymph bathes internal organs

Closed Circulatory

Blood confined to vessels blood exchanges materials w/ ISF

A fish has how many chambers?

2: (1 atrium, 1 ventricle)

An amphibian has how many chambers?

3; (2 atria, 1 ventricle)

Mammals have how many chambers?

4; (2 atria, 4 ventricles)

The heart is located where?

Pericardial cavity

What is the heart made mostly of?

Cardiac muscle tissue

Atria have .....Walls

thin

Valves are located where?

In the atrium and ventricle

What is the purpose of the valves?

Keep blood from flowing back into atria

Name 2 Valves

Tricuspid and Bicuspid

Semi lunar valve

Located at exits of the heart (bottom of each ventricle)

Arteries

carry blood AWAY from heart and organs

Oxygen rich

Arteries

Veins

Return blood to heart

Deoxygenated blood

Veins (except pulmonary)

Capillaries

Microscopic vessels with very thin walls

Capillary wall

single layer of flattened cells

Where do substance transfers occur?

Between capillaries and interstitial fluid

What passes through the capillary walls?

Sugar, H20, salts, oxygen, and urea

Water will ......

Osmosis

Salts, sugars, and urea will...

diffuse

Urea is made of ....

Ammonia

Cardiac muscles contract

systole

Cardiac muscles relax

diastole

Senatorial mode

Maintains hearts pumping rhythm by setting the rate at which all cardiac muscles contract

Hemoglobin

an iron containing protein that carries oxygen

Blood

plasma, RBC, WBC, and platelets

Plasma

made mostly of H20, makes up 55% blood volume

What contains antibodies, fibrinogens?

Plasma

Fibrinogen

proteins that act as clotting factors

Fibrinogen is

...

Hemophilia

an inherited disorder characterized by excessive bleeding from minor cuts and bruises

RBC

Erythrocytes

RBC

has 25 trillion, hemoglobin, and transport oxygen

WBC

Leucocytes

WBC

fight infections have 5 major types; spend time patrolling through the ISF and lymphatic system

WBC 5 major types

Monocytes, basophiles, lymphocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils

Platelets

fragment of leftover RBC, assist in blood clotting

Cardiovascular disease

disease of heart and blood vessels

Myocardial infarction

heart attack; cell death in cardiac muscles result of blockage in coronary artery

Stroke

Cardiovascular accident; cerebrovascular accident; Death of a nervous tissue in the brain resulting from blockage of arteries in the head

Trace a drop of blood

.

Respiratory system

Gets oxygen for body, Gets rid of CO2,

Requirements of all gas exchange mechanisms

moist membranes, High surface area to volume ratio

Respiration in Non-mammals

exchange gasses by diffusion across general body surface

Trachaea

used by insects, air tubes that branch throughout the nsect body

Filter the air that travels through the nose

cilia, mucus, sinuses

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