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Which of the following is NOT an accessory organ to the digestive system?
- pancreas
- spleen
- salivary glands
- liver
- gallbladder

spleen

The digestion of which class of foods begins in the mouth?
- carbohydrates
- proteins
- lipids
- amino acids
- nucleic acids

carbohydrates

which of the following organs of the digestive system is different from the other four because it does NOT produce any secretions that aid in the digestive process?
- stomach
- liver
- esophagus
- pancreas
- salivary gland

esophagus

During the process of swallowing, the
- esophagus is temporarily closed by the glottis
- epiglottis closes the trachea leading to the lungs
- pharynx restricts food entry to the esophagus
- epiglottis seals the esophagus
- none of these

epiglottis closes the trachea leading to the lungs

Which of the following is NOT an active form of an enzyme?
- trypsin
- amylase
- pepsin
- pepsinogen
- lipase

pepsinogen

High stomach acidity
- creates ideal conditions for carbohydrate digestion
- promotes emulsification of fats
- favors protein digestion
- produces peptic ulcers
- converts lipase's into their active forms

favors protein digestion

Bile
- has no effect on digestion
- helps the digestion of fats
- helps in the digestion of carbohydrates
- helps in the digestion of proteins
- helps both in the digestion of carbohydrates and proteins

helps in the digestion of fats

Which of the following is NOT absorbed directly into the blood from the intestine?
- water
- fats
- ions
- glucose
- amino acids

fats

The liver is associated with all of the following functions EXCEPT
- formation of urea
- formation of bile
- detoxication of poisons
- secretion of bicarbonate ions
- carbohydrate storage

secretion of bicarbonate ions

Which of the following chemicals is the first hormone secreted by the intestinal tract in response to the presence of food?
- salivary amylase
- cholecystokinin
- lipase
- gastrin
- secretin

gastrin

Strict vegetarians tend to have a deficiency in the following:
- starch
- minerals
- vitamin B12
- nucleic acids
- vitamin A

vitamin B12

Which vitamin functions in forming a blood clot?
- A
- E
- K
- B
- all of these

K

Which of the following statements is NOT true concerning mineral metabolism?
- Sodium and potassium are needed for maintaining osmotic balances
- Zinc is important in building strong bones and teeth
- Sodium and potassium are needed for muscle and nerve functioning
- Iron is needed for building heme groups
- all the statements presented in this question are true

Zinc is important in building strong bones and teeth

The constituent of hemoglobin whose absence leads to anemia is
- iron
- iodine
- calcium
- zinc
- magnesium

iron

Which cell is NOT involved with the defense response?
- erythrocytes
- neutrophils
- lymphocytes
- eosinophils
- monocytes

erythrocytes

Which cell produces the fibrin used in blood clots?
- lymphocytes
- basophils
- erythrocytes
- mast cells
- platelets

platelets

Most of the oxygen in the blood is transported by
- plasma
- serum
- platelets
- hemoglobin
- leukocytes

hemoglobin

Stem cells
- retain the ability to divide and give rise to groups of specialized cells
- are phagocytic
- are the most common blood cells
- transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
-are more numerous in women than in men

retain the ability to divide and give rise to groups of specialized cells

Which blood type is the universal donor?
- A+
- B
- AB+
- AB
- O

O

In the Rh disease
- the mother must be positive and her first and second children positive
- the mother must be negative and her first and second children positive
- the mother must be negative and her first and second children negative
- the mother must be positive and her first and second children negative
- the mother and the father must both be negative and the child positive

The mother must be negative and her first and second children positive

What occurs during systole?
- Oxygen-rich blood is pumped to the lungs
- the heart muscle tissues in the ventricles contract
- the atria-ventricular valves suddenly open
- Oxygen-poor blood from all body regions except the lungs flows into the right atrium
- all of these

the heart muscle tissues in the ventricles contract

Which of the following statements is true?
- arteries carry only oxygenated blood
- the systemic circuit leaves the heart from the left ventricle
- blood passes through only one capillary bed on its trip through the systemic circuit
- platelets survive a longer time than erythrocytes
- the heart is able to pick up the oxygen it needs as the blood flows through it

the systemic circuit leave the heart from the left ventricle

Which of these is responsible for the breakdown of proteins in the small intestine?
- pepsin
- chymotrypsin
- amylase
- lipase
- all of these

chymotrypsin

The mineral associated with the thyroid gland is
- iron
- magnesium
- cobalt
- calcium
- iodine

iodine

Cholesterol levels are best indicated by
- albumin
- high-density lipoproteins
- low-density lipoproteins
- triglycerides
- the ratio of low-density to high-density lipoproteins

the ratio of low-density to high-density lipoproteins

A patient requires several doses of the same vaccination over time for what reason?
- to ensure production of all the classes of antibodies
- to ensure production of more T cytotoxic cells
- to generate more memory cells
- to make sure there is a fresh supply of new antibodies as one ages
- none of these

to generate more memory cells

THe lymphoid organs include all but the
- spleen
- stomach
- thymus
- tonsils
- appendix

stomach

Areas where lymphocytes congregate as they cleanse the blood of foreign materials are called
- stem cells
- sino atrial nodes
- capillary beds
- lymph nodes
- antibodies

lymph nodes

All but which of the following are good barriers to invasion by microbes?
- mucous membranes
- eye secretions
- broken skin
- stomach juices
- gut bacteria

broken skin

White blood cells are derived from stem cells in the
- spleen
- thymus
- bone marrow
- blood
- liver

bone marrow

Deficiency of which of these constitutes a risk factor in esophageal cancer?
- vitamin C
- Zn
- vitamin A
- phosphorus
- Zn and Cu

Zn

Which of the following results in the formations of holes in the foreign cell membrane?
- inflammation
- phagocytosis
- vaccination
- complement fixation
- humoral immunity

complement fixation

terms that describe the adaptive immune response include all of the following EXCEPT
- specific
- rapid
- memory
- general
- effective

general

Which of the following are NOT generally targets of T cytotoxic cells?
- transplants of foreign tissue
- cancer
- infections caused by viruses
- infections caused by bacteria

infections caused by bacteria

Which of the following are included in the calculation of BMI?
- height
- weight
- muscle
- fat
- height and weight

height and weight

Which cells are held in reserve to be used for a rapid response to subsequent intruders of the same type?
- helper T
- suppressor T
- cytotoxic T
- memory
- B

memory

Which cells directly destroy body cells infected by viral or fungal parasites with perforin?
- helper T
- suppressor T
- cytotoxic T
- memory
- macrophages

cytotoxic T

Unusually high levels of which of the following cells/molecules increases the risk of allergies and asthma?
- helper T cells
- MHC's
- mast cells
- IgE molecules
- B cells

IgE molecules

The cell membrane marker molecules that distinguishes self from non-self are
- phospholipids
- MHC proteins
- lipids
- enzymes
- antibodies

MHC proteins

Immunity is enhanced by which of the following in saliva?
- IgG
- IgM
- salivary amylase
- IgA
- non of the answers provided in this question

IgA

Which immunoglobulin is able to pass the placenta to protect the fetus from pathogens?
- IgG
- IgA
- IgD
- IgM
- IgE

IgG

Cell-mediated response
- involves destruction by perforin molecules
- involves the action of antibodies to destroy invaders
- comes after the humoral response
- results in the production of clones of plasma cells
- all of the answers provided in this question

involves the destruction by perforin molecules

Organ transplants are safest between
- two brothers
- father and daughter
- fraternal twins
- identical twins
- unrelated individuals

identical twins

Which of the following statements is false?
- humans are born with millions of uncommitted B cells
- the primary immune response is faster and more complete than a secondary immune response
- virgin B cells have not yet encountered an antigen
- macrophages will digest invading bacteria
- some plasma cell progeny differentiate into memory cells

the primary immune response is faster and more complete than a secondary immune response

A vaccine may contain
- killed pathogen
- weakened pathogen
- non-infective fragments of a pathogen
- full-strength live pathogen
- any of these except full-strength live pathogen

any of these except full-strength live pathogen

Passive immunity can be obtained by
- having the disease
- receiving a vaccination against the disease
- receiving antibodies by injection
- receiving antibodies from mother at birth
- either receiving antibodies by injection or receiving antibodies from mother at birth

either receiving antibodies by injection or receiving antibodies from mother at birth

When the body's defenses turn against its own cells, the disorder is called
- an autoimmune response
- anaphylactic shock
- acquired immune deficiency syndrome
- passive immunity
- an inflammatory response

an autoimmune response

Which of the following statements is false?
- the virus that causes AIDS is the human immunodeficiency virus
- the AIDS virus is a retrovirus
- the AIDS virus attacks macrophages and helper T cells
- even though the AIDS virus does not have its own DNA, it causes the host to produce DNA
- the AIDS virus can enter T cells through only one receptor

the AIDS virus can enter T cells through only one receptor

Which of the following is secreted before digestion of proteins and begin in the stomach?
- pepsinogen
- pancreatic amylase
- bile
- lipase
- fibrinogen

pepsinogen

The following are required for clotting except
- prothrombin
- fibrin
- calcium
- vitamin K
- platelets

calcium

Intake fo large quantities of sorbitol in diet drinks leads to an upsurge of ___ which increases the feeling of ____.
- sugar, euphoria
- insulin, hunger
- energy, anxiety
- none of these

insulin, hunger

Which of the following is missing in a loose clot?
- lymphocytes
- fibrin
- platelets
- red blood cells
- clotting factors

clotting factors

Food in the stomach is prevented from flowing back into the esophagus or prematurely moving into the small intestine by
- valves
- muscles
- sphincters
- epiglottis

sphincters

Which of the following helps in the absorption of calcium from cow's milk?
- bicarbonate in the small intestine
- vitamin C
- sodium chloride
- vitamin D

vitamin D

Which of the following is responsible for the partial digestion of carbohydrates?
- salivary amylase
- trypsin
- stomach hydrochloric acid
- carboxypeptidase

salivary amylase

High levels of stress increases the level of ___ and decreases the level of ____ in the stomach.
- hydrochloric acid, ulcers
- bacteria, ulcers
- CCK, secretin
- cortisol, mucus

cortisol, mucus

Which of the following is responsible for the partial digestion of carbohydrates?
- ghrelin
- gastrin
- CCK
- secretin
- none of these

ghrelin

The immune system recognizes the difference between self and non-self proteins based on
- how fast it takes the foreign protein to reach the heart
- whether the foreign protein is picked up by a dendritic cell
- whether the foreign protein is detoxified by the liver
- whether the foreign protein has a different three-dimensional structure

whether the foreign protein has a different three-dimensional structure

According to the clonal selection theory, uncommitted B cells will be converted to committed cells when the uncommitted cells
- mature with time
- divide rapidly
- encounter antigens
- none of these

encounter antigens

Bacteria can be destroyed by the following mechanisms
- opsonization
- complement fixation
- inflammation
- vaccination
- all of these

all of these

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