Which of the following are energy nutrients?
Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids
What cannot be made in sufficient quantities by the body?
What is the measurement of the energy content of food?
A food guide pyramid suggests that...
Your diet should contain a variety of foods
What is a kilocalorie (kcal) a measure of?
Energy content of food
What are starches and sugars examples of?
Complex carbohydrates include...
Starch, glycogen, cellulose
What is the primary role of carbohydrates?
To serve as an energy source
What are carbohydrates absorbed into the blood stream as?
What is excess glucose in animals stored as?
Which organs can store glycogen?
Liver and muscles
What does cellulose provide?
Where are phospholipids found?
What are about 95% of the lipids in the human diet?
What can be manufactured in the body?
What are eicosanoids involved in?
Inflammation, blood clotting, tissue repair, smooth muscle contraction
Where must an essential amino acid be supplied?
In the diet
Protein consumption should be __% of total kilocalorie intake
What is a food that contains all nine essential amino acids called?
What is an example of an incomplete protein food?
Leafy green vegetables
What do proteins that function in immunity include?
What do functions of proteins include?
Providing structural strength in connective tissue
What is an example of a water-soluble vitamin?
Why can fat soluble vitamins be toxic in large doses?
They can be stored and accumulate in body tissues
What can serve as components of enzymes?
What mineral is part of the hemoglobin molecule?
The DVs appearing on food labels are based on a ____ kilocalorie reference
What is the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in the body known as?
Anabolic reactions are involved in the production of proteins from _____ _____
What is the digestion of complex carbohydrates an example of?
What is the production of protein by cells an example of?
What is the energy currency of the cell (molecule) called?
What type of reactions are involved in ATP production?
What is glycolysis best defined as the breakdown of?
Glucose to 2 molecules of pyruvic acid
How many ATP and NADH are produced by glycolysis of 1 glucose molecule?
2 ATP and 2 NADH
Where does glycolysis take place?
Cytoplasm of cell
Glycolysis, acetyl-CoA formation, citric acid cycle, electron transport chain
What is the result of 2 turns of the citric acid cycle be?
2 ATP, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2
What is the mitochondrion the site of?
Citric acid cycle and electron transport chain
What does the electron transport chain result in?
Formation of ATP
If oxygen is present, how many molecules (net) of ATP are produced by the oxidation of one molecule of glucose?
What is a molecule that moves electrons from the citric acid cycle to the electron transport chain?
Electrons pass from one electron carrier to another in what?
Electron transport chain
What event occurs last?
Movement of hydrogen ions through special channels is coupled to ATP production
How many ATP are made from each FADH2 that transfers electrons to the electron transport chain?
What is the final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain?
What are the body's main energy storage molecules?
What is the formation of triglycerides called?
What is the formation of glycogen from glucose called?
What is the process that uses amino acids and glycerol to form glucose?
What can glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids be metabolized within the cell to liberate?
There is a need for glucose in the body. What reaction will yield glucose directly?
Why is it important that glucose be converted to glucose-6-phosphate once glucose enters a cell?
Glucose can't diffuse out of the cell if it's in this form
What event takes place during the absorptive state?
Glucose is converted into energy, glycogen, or fats
When does the absorptive state occur?
Immediately to about 4 hours after meals
What is metabolic rate the total amount of?
Energy produced and used by the body per unit of time
What is total metabolic rate estimated from?
Basal metabolic rate, thermic effect of food, physical activity
What does the kidney function in?
Excretion of metabolic wastes
What function would NOT be performed by the kidney?
Urine is carried from the kidneys to the urinary bladder by what?
Where do blood vessels, nerves, and the ureter enter and leave the kidney at?
What is the portion of the kidney that is composed of cone-shaped renal pyramids called?
What is the tip of each renal pyramid called?
Where does the renal papillae extend into?
What are the structural and functional units of the kidney called?
What do the juxtamedullary nephrons have?
Long loops of Henle
What is the network of capillaries located in Bowman's capsule called?
What does the renal corpuscle consist of?
Glomerulus and Bowman's capsule
What structure is a capillary?
An obstruction in the afferent arteriole would reduce the flow of blood into where?
What is the portion of the nephron that empties into the collecting duct?
Distal convoluted tubule
What does the renal corpuscle connect to?
Proximal convoluted tubule
What is between the proximal and distal convoluted tubules?
Loop of Henle
Urine drains from the nephron into the calyces through what?
What type of cells form the proximal convoluted tubule?
Simple cuboidal epithelium with microvilli
What is the vasa recta a specialized portion of?
Which vessel gives rise to the peritubular capillary?
What does the urinary bladder do?
Stores urine until it is voided
What does urine formation involve?
Filtration of plasma, reabsorption from the filtrate, secretion into the filtrate
What does the formation of filtrate depend on?
What is the active transport of substances into the filtrate called?
What is the amount of filtrate produced per minute called?
Glomerular filtration rate
What percent of filtrate becomes urine?
Less than 1%
Where is most water reabsorbed from the filtrate in?
Proximal convoluted tubule
When does the collecting duct become more permeable to water?
ADH production increases
What happens as ADH production declines?
Urine volume increases
What happens when ADH binds to receptor sites on distal tubule cells?
Distal tubule is more permeable to water
What diffuses out of the collecting ducts into the interstitial fluid of the medulla and then diffuses?
In what structure does tubular secretion occur?
Distal convoluted tubule
How do tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion differ?
Tubular secretion adds materials to the filtrate; tubular reabsorption removes materials
What structure collects excess water and solutes from the medullary interstitial fluid?
What helps maintain a high solute concentration in the kidney medulla?
High urea concentration in medulla, active transport of solutes from ascending limb, the vasa recta, functions of the loop of Henle
What do decreased ADH levels result in a urine high?
Aldosterone exerts its effect on the kidney tubules by?
Increasing synthesis of the transport proteins for sodium
ADH increases the permeability of the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts by?
Inserting G-protein activated aquaporin-2 channels into the apical membrane
What is NOT an effect of aging on the kidneys?
A marked decrease in the ability to maintain homeostasis
What structure forms urine?
What structure stores urine until voiding?
What structure transports urine from kidney to urinary bladder?
What structure transports urine from bladder to outside of body?
What structure is the basic functional unit of the kidney?
What structure opens into the renal pelvis?
What structure is cone-shaped in the medulla of kidney?
What structure is the point where renal artery enters kidney?
What are arteries that arch over bases of the pyramids?
What supplies blood to the glomerulus?
What is a plexus of capillaries around tubules?
What is the enlarged proximal end of nephron?
What is the movement of substances from filtrate back into blood?
What is a non-reabsorbed filtrate?
What is the movement of plasma across filtration membrane?
What is plasma minus blood cells and proteins that enter renal tubules?
What is the fate of 99% of the filtrate?
What does an increase in aldosterone secretion promote?
Which function of the reproductive system is solely a function of the female reproductive system?
Development and nourishment of a new individual
What are the female gametes?
Where do sperm cells develop best?
Just below body temperature
What does contraction of the cremaster and dartos muscles do?
Pulls testes closer to the body
What is the process in which male and female gametes develop?
What is the first division of meiosis known as?
From what do primary oocytes develop from?
From what do primary spermatocytes develop from?
Primary oocytes begin the first meiotic division but stop at ________ __ until puberty
What cell type is formed at the end of the first meiotic division?
What cell type has 46 chromosomes?
The ductus deferens is located in a structure called...
Sperm are produced in the __________ ______ and complete maturation in the ________
Seminiferous tubules; epididymis
The primary spermatocyte has __ chromosomes, and the secondary spermatocytes have __ chromosomes
Smooth muscle contractions help to propel sperm in the...
The duct from the seminal vesicle joins the ductus deferens to form the...
What extends through the length of the penis?
How many columns of erectile tissue does the penis consist of?
When does erection of the penis occur?
Penile erectile tissue becomes engorged with blood
What is the spongy urethra surrounded by?
What is sperm cells plus the secretions of accessory glands?
What is discharge of semen into the prostatic urethra called?
What is the forceful expulsion of semen from the urethra caused by contractions of smooth muscle in the urethra and skeletal surrounding the base of the penis?
The secretions produced by the prostate gland constitute about __% of the semen
Which effect on the body can NOT be attributed to testosterone?
Increased calcium excretion
What occurs during an erection?
Engorgement of erectile tissue of penis with blood
What is the role of nitric oxide in male sexual stimulation?
Dilation of blood vessels in the penis
The ovaries and uterus are held in position within the pelvis by bands of tissue called...
The ovary is attached to the superior margin of the uterus by what?
The release of the secondary oocyte from the ovary is called?
Which of the following is produced by in the ovary and then leaves the ovary?
When does fertilization occur?
Nuclei of the secondary oocyte and the sperm unite
"Zygote" is the term used to describe what?
The corpus luteum is a gland that?
Forms from granulosa cells following and secretes mainly progesterone
The cervix is a portion of what?
What is the uterine wall layer that is shed during menstruation?
Which of the following is a function of the vagina?
Average menstrual cycle is about __ days long; ovulation occurs on about day __
The follicular phase of the menstrual cycle is characterized by what?
Rapid development of ovarian follicles
What are the 3 continuous phases of the menstrual cycle in order?
Menses, proliferative, secretory
One hormone responsible for initiating the development of follicles is?
What does the LH surge initiate?
Shortly after ovulation...
Granulosa cells become corpus luteum cells
Causes cellular hypertrophy in the endometrium
During the female sex act...
Clitoris becomes engorged with blood
Sexual drive in females...
dependent on hormones, can be affected by psychological factors, influenced by androgens that affect the hypothalamus
Fertilization usually occurs in the _______ ____ while fetal development occurs in the ______
Uterine tube; uterus
Where does implantation normally occur?
Which of the following is NOT an age-related change in the male reproductive system?
Decline of sperm production until no more sperm are produced
Which of the following is NOT an age-related change of the female reproductive system?
Decreased incidence of breast cancer
Which meiosis I stage is when DNA coils into chromosomes and homologous pairs form?
Which meiosis I stage is when spindle fibers pull homologous chromosomes towards opposite poles of the cell?
Which meiosis I stage is when the cell membrane constricts to form two daughter cells and nuclear membrane reforms?
Which meiosis I stage is when chromosomes randomly assort on the metaphase plate?