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T/F: The founder of the new Russian city on the coast of the Baltic Sea was Peter the Great

True

T/F: In the struggle between the Hungarian aristocrats and the Austrian Habsburgs, the Hungarian aristocrats maintained their traditional privileges

True

T/F: The monarchs of eastern Europe were generally stronger than the kings of western Europe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries

False

T/F: With the Pragmatic Sanction, Charles VI proclaimed that the Habsburg lands were not to be divided

True

T/F: Ivan III ad Ivan IV (the "Terrible") transformed the Russian nobility in a service nobility

True

T/F: An excellent, early eighteenth century example of ties among politics, architecture and urban development is St. Petersburg.

True

T/F: The dominant artistic style of the seventeenth century was Gothic

False

T/F: Peter the Great was responsible for turning Russia inward and away from western influence

False

T/F: Political, rather than economic factors were the most important reason for the rise of serfdom in eastern Europe and the decline of serfdom in western Europe.

False

T/F: The Ottoman empire successfully conquered Vienna before it was later removed due to economic difficulties

False

T/F: Most of the royal revenues collected by the government of Peter the Great went towards warfare

True

T/F: "Old Believers" who left the Russian Orthodox church were allowed to form religious communities so long as they did not interfere with Russian politics

False

T/F: Fredrick William I was perhaps the most important ruler in establishing Prussian absolutism and giving it a unique character.

True

T/F: In contrast to Russia and Prussia, Austria's empire was more vulnerable to civil unrest due to large ethnic minorities that lived withing the Habsburg empire.

True

The unifiers and first rulers of the Russians were the _______

Mongols

By the seventeenth century, commercial activity, manufacturing, and mining in Russia were owned or controlled by the

tsar

In eastern Europe the courts prior to 1650 were largely controlled by

the landowners

The principality called the "sandbox of the holy Roman Empire" was

Brandenburg-Prussia

Ivan the Terrible

monopolized most mining and business activity

Peter the Great's reforms included

compulsory education away from home for the higher classes

The dominant artistic style of the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries was

baroque

The noble landowners of Prussia were known as

Junkers

Between about 1500 and 1650, most peasants in eastern Europe

lost status and became serfs

The Russian Cossacks were

free groups and outlaw armies

After the disastrous defeat of the Czech nobility by the Habsburgs at the battle of White Mountain in 1618, the

majority of the Czech nobles' land was given to soldiers who had fought for the Habsburgs

After the Thirty Years' War and the creation of a large standing army, Austria turned its attention to the control of

Hungary

The result of the struggle of the Hungarian nobles against Habsburg oppression was that

they gained a great deal of autonomy compared with the Austrian and Bohemian nobility

THe monarch who established Prussian absolutism and who was named "the Soldiers' King"

Fredrick William I

The Muscovite princes gained their initial power through

services rendered to the Mongols

The rise of the Russian monarchy was largely a response to the external threat of the

Asiatic Mongols

The Time of Troubles was caused by

a dispute in the line of succession

In order to strengthen the Russian military, Peter the Great

made the nobility serve in the civil administration or army for life

The real losers in the growth of eastern Europe absolutism were the

peasants

The siege of Vienna of 1683 was undertaken by

the Turks

The Battle of Poltava marks a Russian victory over

Sweden

All of the following reflected the power and magnificence of royal absolutism except

soaring gothic cathedrals

The result of the Czech noble revolt of 1618 was

their replacement by Habsburg loyalists

The Habsburg state was made up of

Austria, Bohemia, and Hungary.

Absolutism in eastern Europe emerged in all of the following countries EXCEPT

Poland

Suleiman the Magnificent

Ottoman Turkish leader who almost captured Vienna in 1529

Hohenzollern

Royal family who ruled Prussia from the seventeenth century until the early twentieth century

Michael Romanov

Russian ruler who restored order after the Time of Troubles and who became the first ruler of the Romanov line

Serfdom

Institution where serfs in eastern Europe were required to perform three days of unpaid labor for their lords

Turkey

Present-day country that formed the heart of the Ottoman Empire

Janissary Corps

Christians who were taken from their families as children in the Balkans who became slaves and later, the core of the Ottoman army

Fredrick William

Prussian ruler of the mid-seventeenth century who began centralizing power in that state and created a permanent standing army.

Schonbrunn

Enormous palace built in Vienna by Leopold I that was modeled after the Versailles Palace in France.

Winter Palace

Grand royal residence in St. Petersburg that was rebuilt at the request of Peter the Great's daughter, Elizabeth.

Time of Troubles

Period of political upheaval after the death of Ivan the Terrible

T/F: Governments in the seventeenth century lost important powers to the reformed and energetic Catholic Church

False

T/F: During the seventeenth century, monarchs acquired sovereignty

True

T/F: The best example of absolute monarchy int he seventeenth century was in France

True

T/F: Henry IV of France was unwilling to convert to Catholicism

False

T/F: The basic foundation for French absolutism was laid by Cardinal Richelieu

True

T/F: The fronde was a revolt against the policies of Mazarin and the boy-king Louis XIV

True

T/F: The cultural center of Europe in the seventeenth century was England, Especially London

False: Versailles

T/F: under Louis XIV the Edict of Nantes was extended to all of France

False

In 1596, 1607, 1627, 1647, and 1680, the Spanish crown declared bankruptcy

True

Charles I's attempt to rule without consulting Parliament led to the development of absolutism in England

False

During the age of economic growth in Spain, a vast number of Spaniards left religious orders

False

The Duke of Sully was Louis XIV's able minister of finance

False

For Louis XIV of France the War of Spanish Succession was a disaster

True

Mercantilism

insisted on a favorable balance of trade

French Protestants tended to be

clever business people

The War of Spanish Succession began when Charles II of Spain left his territories to

a French heir

Which of the following is a characteristic of an absolute state

permanent standing armies

Cardinal Richelieu's most notable accomplishment was

the creation of a highly effective administrative system

Absolute monarchs secured mastery over the nobility by all of the following EXCEPT

regulating religious groups

Cardinal Richelieu consolidated the power of the French monarchy by doing all of the following EXCEPT

eliminating the intendant system of local government.

one way in which Louis XIV controlled the French nobility was by

requiring the presence of the major noble families at Versailles for at least part of the year

The french army under Louis XIV

lived off the countryside

The Peace of Utrecht in 1713

represented the balance-of-power principle in action

The downfall of Spain in the seventeenth century can be blamed on

weak and ineffective monarchs

Which of the following is a book by Cervantes that has as its hero and idealistic but impractical soldier

Don Quixote

Treaty of the Pyrenees

Mid-sixteenth-century treaty that ended the French-Spanish wars and symbolized the end of Spain as a great power

Intendants

French royal commissioners who were usually members of the upper middle class or minor nobility and who were solely responsible to the monarch

Hugenots

French Calvinists became targets of Louis XIV's religious policies

Fronde

civil wars between 1648-1653 where nobles sought to reduce the absolute power of the monarchy

Mercantilism

Economic system further developed by Colbert whereby a country sought to achieve a favorable balance of trade with other countries.

Richelieu

First minister under Louis XIII who was important in developing absolutism in France

Edict of Nantes

Edict revoked by Louis XIV that had given religious toleration to French Calvinists

Baroque

Art and literary style in France that dominated during he age of Louis XIV.

Treaty of Utrecht

Treaty that ended the War of Spanish Succession and represented the balance-of-power principle at work

Henry IV

French monarch who initiated an economic recovery and gained Protestant confidence through the Edict of Nantes

Jean Baptiste Colbert

Finance minister and economic genius under Louis XIV whose development of French mercantilism led to increased production and trade

Cardinal Mazarin

Most powerful figure in the French government of Louis XIV during the early years of the "Sun King's" reign.

Duke of Sully

first minister under Henry IV who helped centralize power int he late sixteenth and early seventeenth century

Moors and Jews

Two ethnic groups in Spain whose expulsion in the 15th and 16th centuries led to a significant decline in the Spanish middle class

Which political entity constituted the largest land area in the Holy Roman Empire?

Austrian

Which political entity was becoming the 2nd most powerful withing the Holy Roman Empire?

Prussians

Which dynastic family controlled the Austrian Netherlands?

Hapsburgs

T/F: Charles I's attempt to rule without consulting Parliament led to the development of absolutism in England

False

T/F: The United Provinces of the Netherlands offered the greatest degree of religious toleration in the seventeenth century

True

The highest executive office of the Dutch republic was the stadholder

False

The Dutch East India Company sought only to enrich the highest ranking government officials in the Dutch Republic

False

Oliver Cromwell invaded Ireland in order to re-institute Catholicism in that country

False

Scotland revolted against England when Archbishop Laud sought to impose the rituals of the Anglican Church on Scottish presbyterian

True

According to King James I, Anglican bishops were the largest threat to the king's power

False

The "Glorious Revolution" officially resulted in a constitutional monarchy in England

True

The Hanoverian kings of the 18th century turned out to be far more autocratic in their rule than the Stuarts in the 17th century

True

The Dutch Repblic was successful in creating conditions through which diverse groups of peoples coexisted in the country's activites

True

Which of the following cities was the commercial and financial capital of Europe throughout most of the seventeenth century?

Amsterdam

Of the following, the country most centered on middle-class interests was

the Netherlands

Which of the following Englishmen was a Catholic?

James II

The statement "there are no privileges and immunities which can stand against a divinely appointed king" forms the basis of the

Stuart notion of constitutionalism

The English Long Parliament

enacted legislation against absolutism

Cromwell's government is best described as a

military dictatorship

When Archbishops Laud tried to make the Presbyterian Scots accept the Anglican Book of Common Prayer, the Scots

revolted

Who amon the following was a proponent of the idea that the purpose of government is to protect life, liberty, and property

John Locke

After the United Provinces of the Netherlands won independence from Spain, their government could best be described as

a weak union of strong provinces

The dutch economy was based on

fishing, world trade, and banking

During the administration of Robert Walpole in Britain, the idea developed that

the cabinet be responsible to the House of Commons

The Amstel River was the major link between which of the following cities and its world trading system?

Amsterdam

Calvin

Religious reformer who stated, "From where do the merchant's profits come except from his own diligence and industry."

William Laud

Archbishops whose goal was to enforce anglican unity in england and scotland

Glorious Revolution

Event in the late 17th century that led to a removal of a king leading to England's officially became a constitutional monarchy

upper class gentry

social class that dominated the House of Commons in the early seventeenth century

Stadholders

highest executive in each of the seven provinces of the Netherlands who was responsible for defense and maintaining order

Civil war

religious conflict that pitted the Cavaliers against the Roundheads and resulted in the decapitation of Charles I

"Ship money"

Specific tax levied by Charles I during the eleven ears that he ruled without Parliament

Navigation Acts

Law passed under Oliver Cromwell that sought to enforce England's mercantilist system against Dutch competition

House of Commons

Governmental body in England's Parliament that became the chief opposition to the Stuart kings in the seventeenth century

restoration settlement

Term for the return of Charles II to the monarchy in England in 1660

Test Act

English law that prohibited from voting and holding public office those who refused to receive the sacrament of the Church of England.

Charles I

Monarch who was beheaded after his defeat in the civil war

William III of Orange

Dutch prince who thwarted the expansionism of Louis XIV and later became king of England

Robert Walpole

First prime minister of Great Britain and leader of the cabinet

Charles II

Stuart monarch who was restored to the English throne in 1660

Puritans

English religious sect that sought to rid the Anglican Church of its "Catholic" elements

Elizabeth I

16th century English monarch whose remarkable success was due to political shrewdness and flexibility

James II

Monarch who was forced to abdicate the throne during the "Glorious Revolution"

Thomas Hobbes

Philosopher who wrote that the power of the monarchy should be absolute but does not emanate from divine right

Mary II

English Queen who assumed the throne as a result of the "Glorious Revolution"

Oliver Cromwell

English Puritan and leader of the "New Model Army" who ruled England during the interregnum

James I

Scottish king who succeeded Elizabeth I and became the first of the Stuart line to rule in England

John Locke

English philosopher whose political theories justified the "Glorious Revolution"

From which state did Louis XIV gain the most territory north of France?

Spanish Netherlands

Which region represents the largest province gained by Louis XIV during his reign?

French-comte

From which war did Louis XIV gain the two small territories in southeaster France?

Spanish Succession (Peace of Utrecht)

popular revolts

uprisings and rebellions by peasants int he countryside

intendants

the holder of a public administrative office, royal civil servants

mercantilism

increased role of the state in the economy in order to achieve a favorable balance of trade with other countries

Peace of Utrecht

most important treaty between Treaty of Westphalia and Treaty of Paris. Maintained balance of power in Europe, ended the expansionism of Louis XIV

constitutionalism

arose after the Glorious Revolution, limited the power of the monarch and established Parliaments the supreme being over the King/Queen

puritans

discontent with church of England, ideas came from Calvin, believed the bible was the law

Second Treatise of Civil Government

state of nature=individuals aren't under obligation but are each a judge of what the law of nature requires

divine right of kings

kings were born to be kings, placed on throne by God, and owed his authority to no man or group

absolute monarchy

monarch gets ultimate authority as head of state and government

protectorate

the relation of a strong state to a weaker one that it protects/controls

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