Place where life exists on Earth.
Area defined by location and types of plants and animals.
Part of the biosphere containing biotic and abiotic factors.
All of the interacting populations in an ecosystem.
Group of individuals in the same species.
Organisms' home or habitat.
Ground freezes, permafrost, little life, cold.
Coniferous trees (pines), winter is cold, ice thaws
temperate deciduous forests
Warm summers, cold winters, and moderate precipitation. Deciduous trees (oak) and small mammals.
Grass, big climate changes, prairies, interiors
Scrubs, usually dry
tropical rain forest
High temp and rainfall, tall trees form a canopy, stratified, diverse, many species
Usually hot and dry, few plants or animals.
Top of aquatic biome, where photosynthesis occurs.
Zone with no light.
freshwater, marine, and estuary.
Where tides come in and out.
Low tide to the edge of the open sea (algae, lobsters, crabs, smaller fish).
open-sea zone (pelagic)
Far out ocean, deep, huge amounts of phytoplankton.
Ocean floor, little life, bottom dwellers, some fish.
Boundary of salt and fresh water, marshes, coast, fish nesting ground.
Maximum growth rate of a population under ideal conditions.
biotic potential factors
Age at reproductive maturity, clutch size, frequency of reproduction, reproductive lifetime, and survivorship.
The number of individuals that can be sustained by a habitat.
Factors that prevent a population from obtaining its biotic potential.
Limiting factors that influence population because of size; for example, food, space, disease.
Limiting factors that influence population independent of the density; for example, natural disasters and climate.
Ideal, unregulated, unlimited growth. Makes a J-shaped curve on graph (e.g. bacteria).
Limiting factors restrict the population size to its carrying capacity in this type of growth, which causes an S-shaped curve.
Rapid growth, quickly reproduce, then die (many offspring, small, no parent care).
Population size remains constant (constant number of offspring, extensive parental care; e.g. humans).
Species that live together during a portion of their lives.
Both species benefit in this type of symbiosis; e.g. lichen or acadia tree and ants. Positive/positive relationship.
One species benefits, the other is unaffected. (e.g. barnacle). Positive/neutral relationship.
Type of symbiosis in which a parasite harms a host. (e.g. tapeworm). Negative/positive relationship.
The community that has replaced a previous community of another species.
Plants and animals that are first to colonize an area.
Groups of organisms that reflect their main energy source.
Autotrophs who convert sun into chemical energy.
Herbivores that eat primary producers.
First-degree carnivores that eat primary consumers.
Second-degree carnivores that eat secondary consumers.
Decomposers that obtain energy by consuming dead organisms.
The amount of energy at one trophic level that is transferred to the next level (10%).
Chart of who eats whom.
Expanded, more complete version of a food chain, showing interactions of all the major plants and animals in the ecosystem.
Evolution of one species in response to new adaptations that appear in another species.
Color, pattern, shape, or behavior that enables an animal to blend in with its surroundings.
Warns predators that the strangely-colored animal will sting, bite, taste bad, etc.
When species resemble one another.
Flow of elements from the environment to living things and back.
(Aka hydrologic cycle) Water that has been evaporated or transpired flows into the land.
Carbon from CO2, C6H12O6, and fossil fuels gets used by plants and animals, and then is released as CO2 or burned.
Nitrogen from air goes into soil, is fixed into NH3, and goes back into the air.
N2 to NH4+ by bacteria (in soil and roots).
NH4+ to NO2 and NO3 by bacteria.
Bacteria change NO3 and NO2 back to N2.
Erosion of rocks puts phosphorus in water and soil. Plants absorb it and it is then released when they die and decompose.
Ridley's "Nature vs. Nurture"; what an how an animal does something based on genes and environment.
When fossil fuels are burned and forests burned, increases CO2, thus more heat is trapped in the atmosphere, resulting in a rise in global temperature as well as possibly raising the sea level by melting polar ice caps.
Ozone absorbs UV radiation and prevents it from reaching the surface of the earth where it would damage the DNA of organisms. CFCs in aerosols break down ozone.
Burning of fossil fuels releases pollutants that contain SO2 and NO2. These react with water and produce sulfuric and nitric acid, killing plants and animals.
When a predator hunts its prey for food.
The amount of living matter on the planet.