abnormal psych 4

Created by mdison15 

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autogynephilia

Paraphilia characterized by sexual arousal in men at the thought or fantasy of being a woman

cross-gender identification

The desire to be, or the insistence that one is, of the opposite sex

desire phase

phase in human sexual response triggered by whatever prompts sexual interest

dyspareunia

difficult or painful intercourse

exhibitionism

condition in which the patient derives sexual arousal from the exposure of his or her genitals to strangers

excitement phase

phase in human sexual response in which people experience sexual pleasure and notice physiological changes associated with it

female orgasmic disorder

recurring delay or absence of orgasm in some women following a normal sexual excitement phase, relative to their prior experience and current stimulation

female sexual arousal disorder

sexual dysfunction involving an absence of sexual arousal and unresponsiveness to most or all forms of erotic stimulation

fetishism

sexual attraction to nonliving things

gender identity disorder

identification with members of the opposite sex, persistent discomfort with one's biological sexual identity, and strong desire to change to the opposite sex

gender dysphoria

persistent discomfort about one's biological sex or the sense that the gender role of that sex is inappropriate

hypoactive sexual desire disorder

little or no interest in any type of sexual activity

incest

sexual relations between family members

masochism

the deriving of sexual pleasure from being hurt or humiliated

male orgasmic disorder

a sexual disorder in which the man cannot have an orgasm, even though he is highly aroused and has had a great deal of sexual stimulation

paraphilias

sexual disorders in which unconventional objects or situations cause sexual arousal

pedophilia

sexual activity of an adult with a child

premature ejaculation

Persistent or recurrent ejaculation with minimal sexual stimulation before, on, or shortly after penetration, and before he wishes to ejaculate

resolution phase

the fourth phase of the sexual response cycle, following orgasm, during which the body returns to its resting, or normal state

rape

the crime of forcing a woman to submit to sexual intercourse against her will

sexual dysfunction

Impairment in either the desire for sexual gratification or in the ability to achieve it

sexual aversion disorder

extreme and persistent dislike of sexual contact or similar activities

sadism

sexual pleasure obtained by inflicting harm (physical or psychological) on others

transvestic fetishism

Paraphilia in which individuals, usually males, are sexually aroused or receive gratification by wearing clothing of the opposite sex.

transsexualism

individuals who identify with members of the opposite sex (as opposed to acceptance of their own biological sex) and who strongly desire to (and often do) change their sex. In most cases this is gender identity disorder in adults

voyeurism

sexual excitement is achieved by observing unsuspecting people who are naked, undressing, or engaging in sexual activity

vaginismus

In women, involuntary contractions of the muscles surrounding the outer third of the vagina that interfere with penetration and sexual functioning

amnestic syndrome

an impairment of memory due to medical condition (including trauma), substance abuse (ex alcohol) or a combination of both

antipsychotic medication

Prescription drugs that are used to reduce psychotic symptoms; frequently used in the treatment of schizophrenia

alzheimer's disease

an irreversible, progressive brain disorder, characterized by the deterioration of memory, language, and eventually, physical functioning

APOE-4 allele

significantly increases risk for late onset alzheimer's

anterograde amnesia

Inability to store new memories after a traumatic event

amyloid plaques

A structural change in the cerebral cortex associated with Alzheimer's Disease, in which dense deposits of a deteriorated protein called amyloid develop, surrounded by clumps of dead nerve and glial cells

brief psychotic disorder

Psychotic disturbance involving delusions, hallucinations, or disorganized speech or behavior but lasting less than 1 month; often occurs in reaction to a stressor.

cognitive remediation

Training efforts designed to help patients improve their neurocognitive (e.g., memory, vigilance) skills. The hope is that this will also help improve patients' overall levels of functioning

catatonic schizophrenia

A type of schizophrenia marked by striking motor disturbances, ranging from muscular rigidity to random motor activity.

delirium

a usually brief state of excitement and mental confusion often accompanied by hallucinations

delusional disorder

Psychotic disorder featuring a persistent belief contrary to reality (delusion) but no other symptoms of schizophrenia.

delusions

false beliefs that are maintained even though they clearly are out of touch with reality

disorganized schizophrenia

a form of schizophrenia characterized by severe disintegration of personality including erratic speech and childish mannerisms and bizarre behavior

disorganized symptoms

broad category of symptoms that includes poorly organized speech patterns, odd behaviors, unusual dress, or childlike, silly behavior

dopamine hypothesis

Theory that schizophrenia is caused by an excess amount of dopamine in brain. Research has found that medication to reduce dopamine can reduce the positive symptoms of schizophrenia.

dementia

progressive deterioration of brain functioning

Expressed emotion

a pattern of interactions that includes emotional over-involvement, critical comments, and hostility directed toward a patient by family members

early onset alzheimer's disease

caused by rare genetic mutations:
1) APP (amyloid precursor protein) gene: chromosome 21 - also associated with Downs.
2) PS1 & PS2 (presenilin) gene: chromosome 14 &1.

endophenotypes

Measurable characteristics that can give clues regarding the specific genes involved in disorders

glutamate

A major excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in memory.

huntington's disease

A human genetic disease caused by a dominant allele; characterized by uncontrollable body movements and degeneration of the nervous system; usually fatal 10 to 20 years after the onset of symptoms.

HIV associated dementia

A progressive brain deterioration that is caused by infection from the HIV virus

hallucinations

false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus

Korsakoff's disease

memory loss due to thiamine deficiency from alcohol
use or poor diet

neurofibrillary tangles

a structural change in the cerebral cortex associated with Alzheimer's disease in which bundles of twisted threads appear that are the product of collapsed neural structures

negative symptoms

Schizophrenic symptoms that involve behavioral deficits, such as flattened emotions, social withdrawal, apathy, impaired attention, and poverty of speech.

organic mental disorders

problems caused by brain pathology (brain damage, diseases of brain, injuries, poison)

positive symptoms

Schizophrenic symptoms that involve behavioral excesses or peculiarities, such as hallucinations, delusions, bizarre behavior, and wild flights of ideas.

paranoid schizophrenia

subtype of schizophrenia characterized by preoccupation with delusions and auditory hallucinations. delusions of persecution, grandeur are common

prodrome

symptoms before the onset of a disease

psychosis

loss of contact with reality, most often evidenced as delusions or hallucinations.

Parkinson's disease

a progressive disease that destroys brain cells and is identified by muscular tremors, slowing of movement, and partial facial paralysis

residual schizophrenia

a subtype of schizophrenic disorder reserved for people who have had at least one previous schizophrenic episode but are now showing an absence of prominent psychotic features; there is continuing evidence of two or more symptoms, such as marked social isolation, peculiar behaviors, blunted affect, odd beliefs or unusual perceptual experiences.

retrograde amnesia

loss of memory for events immediately preceding a trauma

schizoaffective disorder

form of psychotic disorder in which the symptoms of schizophrenia co-occur with symptoms of a mood disorder

schizophreniform disorder

Psychotic disorder involving the symptoms of schizophrenia but lasting less than 6 months.

shared psychotic disorder

A psychotic disorder in which one or more people develop a delusional system as a result of a close relationship with a psychotic person who is delusional.

traumatic brain injuries

brain damage resulting from physical trauma, particularly blunt trauma to the head

undifferentiated schizophrenia

mixture of symptoms and does not meet the diagnostic criteria for any one type of schizophrenia

vascular dementia

The deterioration of functioning and cognitive capacities caused by a series of minor strokes that cut off the blood supply to areas of the brain; also called multi-infarct dementia.

triolism

sexual pleasure from watching others have sex

frotteurism

gratification from touching or rubbing up against others

telephone scatologia

making obscene calls for sexual gratification

neologisms

use of new words

clanging

string of rhyming , sound alike words

stereotypy

repetitive purposeless behavior

alogia

loss of words or lack of responsiveness in conversation

erotomania

delusions of love, often involve someone famous

capgras syndrome

belief that a known person is an imposter/double

encephalitus

inflammation of the brain

creutzfeldt-Jacob

mad cow. widespread degeneration of the brain

meningitis

acute inflammation of the meninges

neurosyphilis

deterioration of brain tissue, often resulting in general pareisis

infarction

blockage of blood supply to the brain

graves' disease

excessive release of thyroxin can result in motor agitation and symptoms similar to anxiety

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