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Great Depression

The period following the stock market crash that was the longest, most severe depression yet...it caused far more business failures and unemployment and affected more people.

Black Tuesday (October 29, 1929)

The day the stock market crashed!!

Dow Jones Index

The index of stock prices that fell from its high of 381 before the crash to an ultimate low of 41.

Income Distribution

One of the causes of the Great Depression; uneven distribution of wages compared to the large increases in productivity and corporate profits

Buying on Margin

Allowed people to borrow most of the cost of the stock, making down payments as low as 10 percent

Gross National Product

The value of all the goods and services produced by the nation in one year

Herbert Hoover

The first president who had to deal with the troubles of the great depression

Hawley-Smoot Tariff (1930)

A schedule of tariff rates that was highest in history; set tax increases ranging from 31% to 49% on foreign imports

Debt Moratorium

A suspension on the payment of international debts

Farm Board

Created in 1929 before the crash but supported and enacted to meet the economic crisis and help farmers. Authorized to help farmers stabilize prices by temporarily holding surplus grain and cotton in storage.

Reconstruction Finance Corporation

A federally funded, govt owned corporation created by Congress in 1932 as a measure for propping up faltering railroads, banks, life insurance companies, and other financial situations.

Bonus March (1932)

A march of 1000 unemployed veterans who were soon joined by many others to demand immediate payment of the bonuses promised them at a later date.

Franklin D Roosevelt

The Democratic nominee for the election of 1932, the worst year of the depression; he pledged a "new deal" for the American people, the repeal of Prohibition, aid for the unemployed, and cuts in govt spending.

Eleanor Roosevelt

teddy Roosevelt's niece, who was married to FDR.

Twentieth Amendment

Passed in Feb 1933 and ratified in oct 1933 this amendment shortened the period between presidential election and inauguration.

First New Deal

Established to serve the "three Rs" Relief for the people out of work, Recovery for business and the economy as a whole, and Reform of American economic institutions

Relief, Recovery, Reform

the three Rs of the FDR's New Deal

Brain Trust

A group of university professors whom Roosevelt turned to for advice on economic matters

Frances Perkins

FDR's secretary of labour, the first woman ever to serve in a president's cabinet

Hundred Days

During this period, Congress passed into law every request of FDR, enacting more legislation than any single congress in history.

Bank Holiday

The president ordered this on March 6, 1933 to restore confidence in all the banks that were being closed due to the Great Depression

Repeal of Prohibition

FDR kept his campaign promise and repealed the prohibtion of alcohol with the twenty-first amendment which nullified amendment 18

Fireside Chats

FDR's radio shows to ensure the public. :)

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation

Guaranteed individual bank deposits up to 5000 dollars

Public Works Administration

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Harold Ickes

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Civilian Conservation Corps

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Tennessee Valley Authority

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National Recovery Administration

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Schechter v. US

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Securities and Exchange Commission

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Federal Housing Administration

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Second New Deal

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Works Progress Administration

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Second New Deal

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Works Progress Administration

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Harry Hopkins

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Nation Labour Relations (Wagner) Act (1935)

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Social Security Act (1935)

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Father Charles Coughlin

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Francis Townsend

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Huey Long

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Supreme Court Reorganization Plan

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Congress of Industrial Organizations

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John L Lewis

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Sit-Down Strike

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Fair Labour Standards Act (1938)

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New Democratic Coalition

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John Maynard Keynes

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Depression Mentality

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Drough; Dust Bowl; Okies

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John Steinbeck, The Grapes of Wrath

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Mariah Anderson

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Mary McLeod Bethune

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Fair Employment Practices Committee

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A. Philip Randolph

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Indian Reorganization (Wheeler Howard) Act (1934)

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