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Chapter 11 The Americas to 1500
1) All of the following relate to the inhabitants of the Americas before the arrival of the Europeans in the 16th century EXCEPT
A) they reached the New World by crossing the Bering land bridge. B) they were indigenous natives who inhabited the New World.
C) they walked or boated down the Pacific coast. D) they reached the Americas by sailing from Polynesia and southern Asia across the Pacific
Ocean. E) they arrived by sailing from Europe across the Atlantic Ocean.

: B

Ref: 342
2) The crop that became the most important agricultural product in the New World after about 5000 B.C.E. was
A) wheat.​B) maize.​C) barley.​D) yams.​E) rice.

: B

Ref: 342
3) Cahokia A) represented a culture near the Rio Grande River.
B) existed in present-day Florida. C) was an ancient settlement along the Ohio River in present-day Ohio. D) was a trade center for the Mound Builders near present-day St. Louis.
E) was the center of a semi-nomadic culture in the Pacific Northwest.

: D

Ref: 343
4) Amerindian cultures followed a pattern of development similar to Africa and Asia but lacked A) development of urban centers.
B) a belief in monarchy. C) human sacrifices. D) the horse.
E) theocratic systems.

: D

Ref: 343-344
5) Mesoamerican cultures were A) the Indian cultures that built pueblos in the southwestern United States.
B) the Indian civilizations that formed in South America. C) the earliest Spanish cultures in the New World. D) civilizations in Mexico and Central America.
E) Indian cultures along the Mississippi River.

: D

Ref: 343
133
6) During the Formative Period (before 150 C.E.), the ________ became the origin group of the later Mesoamerican people.
A) San Lorenzo B) Olmecs
C) Aztecs D) Incas
E) Mayans

: B

Ref: 344
7) Which of the following was consistent with the Olmec people? A) a ruling priest class
B) agricultural surpluses C) colossal sculptured stone heads D) pottery, weaving, and masonry
E) all of the above

: E

Ref: 344
8) The earliest Olmec center of civilization was at A) Teotihuacan.
B) Oaxaca. C) San Lorenzo. D) Cuzco.
E) Tenochtitlan.

: C

Ref: 344
9) The classic period of Mesoamerican civilization was an era of advances in all regions that occurred
A) at the very beginning of the habitation of the Americas about 20,000 years ago. B) between the 5th and 2nd centuries B.C.E.
C) between the 2nd and 10th centuries C.E. D) in the last two centuries.
E) none of the above.

: C

Ref: 345
10) The largest human-made structure in the New World is an enormous pyramid standing 213 feet high at
A) Teotihuaca ́n. B) Cuzco.
C) Monte Alban. D) Tenochtitlan. E) Monte Verde.

: A

Ref: 343
134
11) The classic period in Mesoamerican civilization exhibited all of the following EXCEPT A) foreign trade.
B) writing. C) no military. D) time keeping.
E) elaborate religious architecture.

: C

Ref: 346
12) All of the following are consistent with Mayan civilization EXCEPT A) long-distance trade.
B) productive economies. C) slavery. D) continued matriarchal society.
E) irrigation systems.

: D

Ref: 346
13) Each Mayan center was governed by A) the eldest female.
B) the eldest male. C) a shaman. D) a group of elders chosen for their wisdom.
E) a hereditary priest-king.

: E

Ref: 347
14) Which is true of the Maya? A) Human sacrifice was uncommon.
B) Slavery did not exist. C) Religion dominated all features of everyday life. D) There was no written language.
E) Wars were uncommon.

: C

Ref: 347
15) The Mesoamerican civilization that first developed a useful and accurate social calendar with eighteen months of twenty days and five extra days for religious festivals was the
A) Maya. B) Pueblo Indians of the Southwest.
C) Inca. D) Zapotec.
E) Aztec.

: A

Ref: 347
135
16) An important ceremonial center for the Mayan people was located at A) Chimu.
B) Quechua. C) present-day Mexico City. D) Mandan.
E) Tikal.

: E

Ref: 348
17) Mesoamericaʹs classical age ended A) due to epidemics.
B) after the Spanish arrived. C) due to invasions of fierce people from the North. D) due to earthquakes.
E) unknown causes.

: C

Ref: 348
18) As the militarism of the Toltec spread from central to southern Mexico, A) human sacrifice ended.
B) political unity resulted. C) the population decreased. D) Tollan became an urban complex.
E) trade ended.

: D

Ref: 348
19) Quetzalcoatl, the Teotihuacan god, A) was the god of a war cult.
B) became the dominant god of Mesoamerica. C) was rejected by the king of the Toltecs. D) opposed human sacrifice.
E) demanded human sacrifice.

: D

Ref: 348
20) The ________ rose to dominate central Mexico during the postclassical era. A) Hopewell
B) Aztecs C) Mayans D) Incas
E) Toltecs

: B

Ref: 349
136
21) An important Aztec innovation in technology was A) in astronomy, which established the basis for a much more accurate calendar.
B) hydraulic agriculture, which significantly increased food production. C) the invention of the wheel. D) the obsidian knife, which equals in sharpness modern surgical scalpels.
E) in mechanics, which made it possible to build much higher pyramids.

: B

Ref: 349
22) The Aztec warrior who conquered neighbors and established the first recognizable Aztec state was
A) Chichimec. B) Anasazi.
C) Montezuma I. D) Topiltzin.
E) Quetzalcoatl.

: C

Ref: 350
23) The architectural wonder of artificial islands, canals, avenues, and monuments that served as the Aztec capital was
A) Tikal. B) Montezuma.
C) Tenochtitlan. D) Ixoatl.
E) Cuernavaca.

: C

Ref: 350
24) All of the following are consistent with the Aztec culture EXCEPT A) a system of provincial government.
B) human sacrifice. C) self-sufficiency with little trade conducted. D) violence.
E) conquest and accumulation of wealth.

: C

Ref: 350-351
25) Huitzilopochtli was the A) Aztec sun god to whom sacrificial victims were offered.
B) last of the Incas, defeated by the Spaniards under Pizarro. C) capital of the Aztec Empire. D) religious center of the Mayan civilization.
E) Aztec ruler who made contact with the Spanish.

: A

Ref: 351
137
26) An American civilization that extended for more than 3,500 miles north to south and that was ruled in a more centralized fashion than any contemporary European kingdom was the
A) Toltec kingdom. B) Inca Empire.
C) Aztec kingdom. D) Mayan civilization.
E) none of the above.

: B

Ref: 351
27) The American leader who became one of the most powerful people in the New World was A) Pachacuti.
B) Montezuma II. C) Atahualpa. D) Topa Yupanqui.
E) Huayna Capac.

: A

Ref: 352
28) All of the following are consistent with the Inca culture EXCEPT A) elaborate irrigation systems.
B) women were subordinate and exploited. C) favorable climate and geographic location. D) an extensive road network.
E) a state-controlled economic system.

: C

Ref: 352-354
29) The American Indian civilization that created a conscript army of 200,000 soldiers commanded by officers who held complete authority was the
A) Aztec. B) Mayan.
C) Zapotec. D) Tierra del Fuegan.
E) Inca.

: E

Ref: 355
30) All of the following are common to the Inca EXCEPT A) soldiersʹ wives accompanied them on campaigns to carry heavy loads.
B) young males were sacrificed to the Inca gods. C) their emperor considered himself divine. D) women could inherit property when they were widowed.
E) nobles shared the divine mandate to rule and so maintained an elite position.

: B

Ref: 355
138
31) Which of the following was a dominant concern of the Incas? A) aesthetics
B) religion C) philosophy D) security
E) literature

: D

Ref: 355-356
32) The Indian civilization that had no written language but kept records on knotted strings was the ________ civilization.
A) Mayan B) Aztec
C) Inca D) Pueblo Indian
E) Adena

: C

Ref: 355
33) ________ became a sacred landscape for the Inca with 400 shrines. A) Quipus
B) Viracocha C) Cuzco D) Mogollon
E) Cayuga

: C

Ref: 356
34) Who were the people who lived in the Northeast of North America? A) Iroquois
B) Anasazi C) Seminole D) Hopewell
E) Hohokam

: A

Ref: 357
35) All of the following are consistent with the Six Nations EXCEPT A) agriculture.
B) permanent villages. C) living in long houses. D) importance of women and female lineage.
E) non-military traditions.

: E

Ref: 357
139
36) We know that the Hopewell and Adena cultures had a sophisticated view of the afterlife because
A) they constructed burial tombs out of stone. B) they left written records.
C) they built impressive burial mounds. D) they left cave paintings depicting an afterlife.
E) none of the above.

: C

Ref: 358
37) Which of the following is NOT significant in the Mississippian culture? A) brutality
B) agriculture C) wattle and daub construction D) hunting and gathering
E) Cahokia

: D

Ref: 358-359
38) The ʺcliff dwellersʺ of the American Southwest were the A) Navajo.
B) Mandan. C) Mogollon. D) Apache.
E) Anasazi.

: E

Ref: 360
39) Which of the following did NOT contribute to the disappearance of the ʺcliff dwellersʺ? A) arrival of the Europeans
B) arrival of the Navajo C) drought D) internecine conflicts
E) arrival of the Apache

: A

Ref: 360
40) The Mandan Indians occupied the A) Rocky Mountain region.
B) Canadian plains. C) Southwest desert region. D) Upper Missouri River Valley.
E) Mississippi River valley south of present-day St. Louis.

: D

Ref: 361
140
41) The largest Native American group in the United States today is the A) Seneca.
B) Oneida. C) Mohawk. D) Apache.
E) Navajo.

: E

Ref: 361
42) The Inuit people A) hunted only sea animals.
B) lived in what is today the Pacific Northwest of the United States. C) hunted whales from their umiaks. D) occupied only the Alaskan peninsula.
E) lived along the California coast.

: C

Ref: 361

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