Romulus and Remus
Twins that were set afloat on Tiber River. A she-wolf and shepherd took care of them. Romulus killed Remus and his hilltop, The Palatine, became Rome.
Why was geography important to Rome's success?
Their location was a central point for trade. (The city was a central point within a central peninsula) The western side was fertile.
Italian peninsula was shaped by 3 dominant groups
Latins, the Greeks, and the Etruscans
Latin's impact on Italy
They settled on either side of the Tiber called Latium. Began as a settlement of shepherds.
The Greeks impact on Italy
50 colonies, called the area Magna Graecia (Greater Greece). They influenced Rome with their prosperous cities.
The Etruscans impact on Italy
Rome adapted their alphabet, influenced architecture, and helped to develop trade.
Religion in Rome- Greeks
Like the greeks, they were polytheistic. But they didn't have names or personalities. They were spirits linked with daily cares
Religion in Rome- Etruscans
Romans learned the practice of "taking the auspices" which means "watching birds in flight" it was a good sign if before a battle a bird soared ahead. Interpreted the will of the gods by looking at the liver of a animal
Valley below Palantine Hill
Was drained and became a meeting place called the Forum
"The ways of the Fathers"
Group of values. Emphasized discipline, strength, and loyalty called gravitas.
"father of the family" the eldest man has power over household. acted as a chief priest.
Roman women had rights
citizen, own property and testify in court, advised husband on business and politics. couldn't vote
upper class who claimed their ancestors were fathers who founded Rome
farmers, artisans, and merchants. had the right to vote. less power than patricians. Birth determined it.
Men in the army
All male citizens were required to serve in the army, and could only hold public office once he served 10 years as a soldier.
military unit consisting 4000-6000 men.
every legion was divided into 60 smaller groups
(Senatus Populusque Romanus) the senate and the roman people. Engraved in a coin. These 2 groups are the heart of the Roman Government. The phrase masked the bitter struggle btw patricians and plebeians.
How did plebeians get their share in political power?
They refused to fight in the army unless the patricians agreed to certain reforms. Enslavement for debt was ended and marriage btw them was allowed.
Plebeians victories led to what first?
The creation of a written law code
the laws were carved on 12 tables and hung in the Forum. Established the idea that all free citizens had a right to the protection of the law.
Rome achieved a balanced government
It was part monarchy (govt by a king), partly an aristocracy (govt by nobles), and partly a democracy (govt. by the ppl)
in place of a king, 2 officials commanded the army and directed govt. Had the power of life and death over citizens in wartime and peace time
How was the consuls power limited?
by 2 rules: 1st a consul's term was only 1 year long, and the same person couldn't be elected consul again for 10 years. 2nd, 1 consul could always veto the other's decisions.
the senate was
the aristocratic branch of Romes govt. Membership for life.
the assembly was
the democratic side of roman govt. any citizen-soldier
Govt in times of crisis
the republic would turn to a dictator. Only lasted for 6 months. Chosen by consuls and then elected by the senate
Sacked by Gauls
Roman walls were stormed by Gauls. (Bribed them to leave) thus having romans build a stronger larger wall
king in western greece who brought 20000 men to fight romans. "you can win every battle but still lose the war" (pyrrhic victory)
conquered peoples who were given the rights of a roman citizen except to vote
what was roman strategy that athens didnt have?
They allowed citizens to be from ppl outside rome
Why did the punic wars begin?
rome and carthage fought for sicily and western mediterranean.
soldiers who fight in any country's army for pay
carthage's advantage over rome
3xs bigger, 500 ships, trade made them wealthy to recruit neighboring Numidia for soldiers
3 advantages for rome in punic wars
1:large army made through conquests of italy 2:troops were more loyal than mercenaries 3: warfare was their specialty
a bridge created for romans to move from their ship to carthages ships
1st punic war
Rome won control of sicily, 23 years.
around europe into the alps. he destroyed 1st roman army. led the 2nd into a trap.
general equal to Hannibal. Attacked carthage forcing H to go back. named africanus (conqueror of africa)
Battle of Zama (2nd punic war)
Carthegian beat by Scipio. if rome didn't win, carthage would've been the largest empire in the world
3 regions after Alexander the greats death
the antigonid ruled macedon, the ptolemaic ruled egypt, and the seleucid ruled Persia (at war)
3rd punic war
Cato encouraged that carthage must be destroyed. Guided by Scipio A., the roman army set fire to the city
huge estates. small farmers sold their land to wealthy citizens bc they couldn't afford it. captives were used to tend to the land
urban, landless poor. veterans. they were the poorest of rome, and were a mob
Excess after a victory
Triumphs (special holidays). Patrician life changed. homes turned to mansions, they got stuff from other lands, and had exotic foods and entertainment.
Slaves served how much of the population?
Categories of slaves
poor was to do laborious work, rich worked in mansions
a gladiator who raised an army of slaves to fight for freedom. fought 9xs before they were crushed
officials who spoke on behalf of the plebeians elected by the assembly.
stated that the poor should be given land, limit the size of large estates, and distribute land. On election day, the senate and followers killed him and threw him into the tiber
tribune. pushed through a series of laws to weaken the senate. planned programs for unemployment. declared enemy of the state.
army leader who drove off germanic tribes. elected 5xs as consul. only land owners could serve in the army. drove farmers out. allowed the cities poor to enlist (equipped with weapons)
made himself a dictator until he stepped down
Julius Caesar and Crassus
Crassus invested in Caesars politcal career. Worked out as caesar won province for spain
the 1st triumvate
caesar, crassus and pompey. with their help, caesar was elected consul .ruled rome
Caesar's gain in land
took over eastern britannia, gaul, and germanic tribes. he suffered with his army in the lack of food, but won great respect doing so (commentaries on the gallic wars)
Julius appointed dictator
the senate appointed him 10 years. made citizens outside italy, senate changed to 900 men.
ordered 1/3 of free men to work force. created a public works. founded 20 colonies to provide land for the poor. new calender
the 2nd triumvirate
marc antony, lepidus, and octavian worked together to destroy caesars enemies.
octavian took the title
"first citizen" and augustus (exalted one)
romans adopted gladiator shows from
augustus set the tone for the empire
old values of simplicity, sober conduct, and patriotism
silver coin used under the empire that would make trade easier
Augustus and tax
it hurt to trade taxed goods, so he eliminated it
augustus and transportation
created highway construction. aqueducts- bridgelike structures that led water into centers of populations
A city of marble
new concrete (lime and mortar) commissioned artists and architects to build temples like Parthenon.
work of running empire left to plebians and slaves. all ranks served in this civil service
julian dynasty-mentally disturbed, assassinated. appointed his horse consul
julian dynasty- considered stupid as a child, but became an intelligent emperor. added britannia to empire. set up govt. departments for accounts, correspondence, and justice
julian dynasty- became emperor at 16. vicious in ruling, killed his mother. rebuilt rome after the great fire. and began persecution of christians (committed suicide)
5 good emperors- spanish born (1st emperor from provinces) conquered dacia (romania), empire reached its greatest extent during his rule
5 good emperors- consolidated conquests rather than adding new lands. reorganized bureaucracy and set up postal service
faced widespread barbarian invasions on syrian and danube frontiers, wrote meditations, pax romana ended with him
the pax romana spread roman and
greek achievements. acknowledged greeks leadership in art, architecture, literature and philosophy. called the "greco-roman" culture
Rome forgot religion because
they were getting so into their achievements they forgot about the gods.
the way to gain happiness was to free the body from pain and free the mind from fear. to accept death. romans misunderstood
greek philosopher zeno encouraged virtue, duty, and endurance. universe controlled by a supreme power. supported traditional roman values. stoics had an influence in politics.
wrote to console himself. later collected in to meditations.
politics and stoicism
new laws were just. pater familias no longer had power over life and death. masters weren't allowed to kill or injure their slaves
patriotic work. he liked past heros because the were men of honor, courage, discipline, and moral strength. due to that, they could conquer every foe
virgil's epic poem
Aeneid famous for patriotism. augustus saved his works. modeled after greek works of homer.
literature went from patriotism to criticism. btw death of augustus and hadrian
writing that mocked society for its foolishness
(negative) poet who talked about morals of private citizens
(negative) historian who scorned the government. his Annals, every emperor from tiberius to nero was corrupt
architecture difference with greeks and rome
greeks used architecture to glorify the gods while the romans used it to glorify their rule
dome, dedicated to all its gods. dome was on a rotunda.
roman law-being judged
no person was to be judged guilty until all facts of the case were examined
roman law- to testify
people accused of crimes had a right to face their accusers and defend themselves before a judge
roman law- innocent
should be judged innocent before proven guilty
poor vs rich after augustus
rich lived extravagantly, poor in slums.
wealthy city people who had country estates
jews won independence from rome
Seleucid tried building a statue of zeus in a jewish temple. Judas Maccabee recaptured it and purified it
god would end wickedness if we removed sin.
jesus chose 12 special messangers who helped to spread his teachings
jesus used "short stories" that contained moral lessons
ordered jesus crucified bc it threatened roman rule
job was to kill christians. but one day he heard jesus and saul the jew became paul the christian.
peter traveled to rome where he had acted as as rome's first bishop. a church official who set moral standards and supervised the finances of several local churches.
argument that peter was the first pope. east rejected, west accepted
created a new capital Byzantium, now in turkey. its advantage was it was the central point between the black sea and mediterranean and bosporus. strongly christian.
ostrogoths, visigoths, franks, angles, saxons, burgundians, lombards, vandals. all germanic
crossed rhine river. through gaul. bergundians, vandals, and franks felt pressure by huns
rome sacked by barbarians
1st visigoths (king Alaric) 2nd by vandals (Gaiseric)
pope that stopped the huns from coming to rome