DNA, GENE EXPRESSION, AND BIOTECHNOLOGY

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JAMES WATSON AND FRANCIS CRICK

Broke the code of DNA structure in 1953 by gathering information from fellow scientists

WHO DID THEY GATHER INFO FROM?

Line Pauling, Maurice Wilkins, and Rosalind Franklin

LINUS PAULING

Molecular Structure

MAURICE WILKINS AND ROSALIND FRANKLIN

X-ra picture of DNA

STRUCTURE OF DNA

Double Helix

DNA

phosphate attached to a sugar group
genetic material made of nucleotide sequences

4 TYPES OF DNA

Guanine, Cytosine, Adenine, and Thymine

WHICH OF THESE DNA'S PAIR UP?

Guanine + Cytosine
Adenine + Thymine

GENOME

An organisms full set of DNA found in its nucleus or in circular pieces of genetic material

HOW MANY PAIRS OF CHROMOSOMES TO HUMANS HAVE?

23 pairs

EACH SPECIES WILL HAVE THE SAME AMOUNT OF CHROMOSOMES THAT MAKE UP GENETIC MATERIAL?

No

LARGER NUMBER OF CHROMOSOMES MEANS MORE COMPLEX ORGANISM?

No

GENES

Genes are the specific sequence of base pairs that carry the information for a specific product or expression

ALLELES

Alternate versions of a gene that code for the same feature. pair of genes for a given trait.

INTRONS

Regions of the gene that are considered "non-coding" DNA sequences. They will usually precede and follow after.

EXON

Coding sequence of the gene.

ARE THERE MORE CODING SEQUENCES THAN NON-CODING SEQUENCES?

No

GENOTYPE

The sequence of base pairs that codes for a particular trait or protein for the organism

PHENOTYPE

The physical trait or protein made by the gene.

WHAT MUST OCCUR FOR THE BASE PAIR SEQUENCE'S "MESSAGE" TO GET OUT IN TO THE CELL?

Translation and Transcription

TRANSCRIPTION

makes an mRNA strand of one side of the DNA

TRANSLATION

mRNA is translate into two DNA strands

mRNA

Can leave the nucleus and work its way to a ribosome for protein production

WHEN DOES TRANSLATION OCCUR?

After mRNA has found its way from the nucleus to a ribosome

RIBOSOME DECODE

Decode into strands of proteins that are very long chains of amino acids

TRANSFER RNA

A series of 3 nucleotides that reads a 3 nucleotide sequence in the mRNA in order to find the amino acid that will be next in line for the protein to be built.

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