holiest place in Islam, a cube-shaped building
a society's conversion to Islam
a challenge to or overturning of traditional beliefs, customs, and values, any movement against the religious use of images
relating to Roman culture
the organization of people at different ranks in an administrative body
Five Pillars of Faith
the essential duties of Muslims must fulfill; faith, prayer, alms, fasting and pilgrimage
The plains and savannah south of the Sahara in Africa
Body of Civil Law
Justinian's codification of Roman law; made Roman law a coherent basis for political and economic life.
knotted cords of various lengths and colors used by the Inca to keep financial records
the policy of extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countries, or of acquiring and holding colonies and dependencies.
the movement of the Bantu peoples southward throghout Africa, spreading their language and culture, from around 500 b.c. to around A.D 1000
the epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe
system of managing government through departments run by appointed officials
the fourth caliph of Islam. Islam was divided after his death into Shi'a and Sunni
first caliph after death of Muhammad
Third caliph and member of Umayyad clan; murdered by mutinous warriors returning from Egypt; death set off civil war in Islam between followers of Ali and the Umayyad clan
A branch of Islam whose members acknowledge the first four caliphs as the rightful successors of Muhammad
the branch of Islam whose members acknowledge Ali and his descendants as the rightful successors of Muhammad
South African nation
Muslim name for the one and only God
A Russian term for "Caesar" or ruler; the authoritarian rulers of the Russian empire before its collapse in the 1917 revolution
King of Franks; conquered Gaul; earned support of Gaul and Church of Rome by converting; Ruled lands in Frankish custom but kept Roman legacy
lesser lords who pledged their service and loyalty to a greater lord -- in a military capacity
a major philosopher of scholasticism who taught at the University of Paris and put reason above faith- he wrote a book called " sic et non" (yes and no) with 150 statements on theology and ethics(1079-1142)
(1200-1521) 1300, they settled in the valley of Mexico. Grew corn. Engaged in frequent warfare to conquer others of the region. Worshipped many gods (polytheistic). Believed the sun god needed human blood to continue his journeys across the sky. Practiced human sacrifices and those sacrificed were captured warriors from other tribes and those who volunteered for the honor.
Ruler of Inca society from 1438 to 1471; launched a series of military campaigns that gave Incas control of the region from Cuzco to the shores of Lake Titicaca
a Japanese warrior who was a member of the feudal military aristocracy
Powerful Japanese family in 11th and 12th centuries; competed with the Minamota family; defeated after the Gempei Wars.
Mongolian emperor of China and grandson of Genghis Khan who completed his grandfather's conquest of China. Established the Yuan Dynasty in China, based in Beijing
Persian invaders of the 10th century; captured Baghdad and acted as sultans through Abbasid figureheads
nomadic Turks from Asia who conquered Baghdad in 1055 and allowed the caliph to remain only as a religious leader. they governed strictly
(1137-1193) Powerful Muslim ruler during Third Crusade, defeated Christians at Hattin took Jerusalem
a mystical Muslim group that believed they could draw closer to God through prayer, fasting, and a simple life
(Temujin)- born in 1170s in decades following death of Kabul Khan; elected khagan of all Mongol tribes in 1206; responsible for conquest of northern kingdoms of China, territories as far west as the Abbasid regions; died in 1227 prior to conquest of most of the Islamic world. Created largest land empire ever.
Under the Islamic system of military slavery, Turkic military slaves who formed an important part of the armed forces of the Abbasid Caliphate of the ninth and tenth centuries. Mamluks eventually founded their own state, ruling Egypt and Syria (1250-1517)
the tittle for a ruler in the Mali Empire of western Africa
one of a seafaring Scandinavian people who raided the coasts of northern and western Europe from the eighth through the tenth century.
Carolingian monarch of Franks; responsible for defeating Muslims in battle of Tours in 732; ended Muslim threat to western Europe.
William the Conqueror
the duke of Normandy, a province of France, and the leader of the Norman Conquest of England. He defeated the English forces (led by Harold) at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 and became the first Norman King of England.
influential scholastic thinker (1225-1274) wrote Summa Theologica, recognized faith and reason as overlapping realms of knowledge
Clans in Aztec society, later expanded to include residential groups that distributed land and provided labor and warriors.
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
For 700 years, Japan was under the rule of the Japanese military leaders known as shoguns.
Defeated the rival Taira family in Gempei Wars and established military government (bakufu) in 12th century Japan
White Lotus Society
Secret religious society dedicated to overthrow of Yuan dynasty in China; typical of peasant resistance to Mongol rule
the founder of Mali empire. He crushed his enemies and won control of the gold trade routes
Moroccan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan. (p. 373)
Byzantine emperor in the 6th century A.D. who reconquered much of the territory previously ruler by Rome, initiated an ambitious building program , including Hagia Sofia, as well as a new legal code
Cyril and Methodius
Byzantine missionaries sent to convert eastern Europe and the Balkans; responsible for creating the Slavic written script called Cyrillic.
Ruler of Russian kingdom of Kiev from 980 to 1015; converted kingdom to Christianity
Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians (280-337)
Warlike people who migrated from Eastern Europe into territory controlled by Germanic tribes, forcing them to move into areas controlled by Rome
Workers who were tied to the land on which they lived
Frankish king who conquered most of Europe and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III in the year 800. He was a great patron of education
Pope Urban II
pope who called for the first crusade to reclaim Jerusalem from the Muslims
Ferdinand and Isabella
Marriage uniting Aragon and Castile. Together carried out Reconquista and Inquisition of Spain.
Ancient civilization (1200-1500AD) that was located in the Andes in Peru
Japanese aristocratic family in mid-9th century; exercised exceptional influence over imperial affairs; aided in decline of imperial power.
a Japanese feudal lord who commanded a private army of samurai
also known as Cambodians; established societies in Mekong River Basin. Their Indianized society was based on agricultural, fishing, and commerce.
Royal house of Franks after 8th century until their replacement in 10th century.
The more mystical and larger of the two main Buddhist sects, this one originated in India in the 400s CE and gradually found its way north to the Silk road and into Central and East Asia.
(Chan) Zen Buddhism
school of Mahayana Buddhism asserting that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith
term that describes the resurgence of Confucianism and the influence of Confucian scholars during the T'ang Dynasty; a unification of Daoist or Buddhist metaphysics with Confucian pragmatism
Eastern Orthodox Christianity
Eastern branch of Christianity that evolved following the division of the Roman Empire and the subsequent development of the Byzantine Empire in the east and the medieval European society in the west. The church recognized the primacy of the patriarch of Constantinople.
A branch of Christianity that developed in the western Roman Empire and that recognized the Pope as its supreme head
followers of the Theologian Nestoris who lived in the early fifth century and emphasized the human as opposed to the divine nature of Jesus. Found in Asia
a holy struggle or war by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal
1096 Christian Europe aim to reclaim Jerusalem and aid they Byzantines; 1st success and the rest a failure; weakens the Byzantines; opens up trade
Wars that followed Muhammad's death in 632; resulted in defeat of rival prophets and some of larger clans; restored unity of Islam
Hundred Years War
Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families. (1337-1453). The French win.
Series of wars fought, (1180-85), final struggle in Japan between the Taira and Minamoto clans that resulted in the Minamoto's establishment of the Kamakura shogunate, a military dictatorship that dominated Japan from 1192 to 1333.
Arab sailing vessels with triangular or lateen sails; strongly influenced European ship design
(Islam) a tradition based on reports of the sayings and activities of Muhammad and his companions
The 1,100-mile (1,700-kilometer) waterway linking the Yellow and the Yangzi Rivers. It was begun in the Han period and completed during the Sui Empire. (p. 277)
Triangle-shaped sails whose design allowed ships to sail against the wind. These sails were perfected by Arab traders.
A written number system created during the Gupta golden age in India, then adopted by the Islamic Empire before spreading further. Used throughout western civilization today.
Paper money that was first used in China in the 9th century AD. Originally it was called 'flying money' (fei-chien) because it could blow out of your hand. To start with it was used by merchants as a note of exchange, but the government soon caught onto the idea and used it for forwarding tax payments. Real paper money backed by deposited money started in the 10th century.
An alphabet for the writing of Slavic languages, devised in the ninth century A.D. by Saints Cyril and Methodius
Byzantine weapon consisting of mixture of chemicals (petroleum, quicklime, sulfur) that ignited when exposed to water; utilized to drive back Arab fleets that attacked Constantinople
Ritual suicide or disembowelment in Japan; commonly known in West as hari-kari; demonstrated courage and a means to restore family honor.
dynasty that overthrew the Umayyad to rule the Muslim caliphate from 750 to 1258; for 150 years they maintained the unity of the caliphate and Islamic civilization and culture flourished
the first dynasty of Arab caliphs whose capital was Damascus
States trading to north Africa and mixing Islamic and indigenous ways.
First known kingdom in sub-Saharan West Africa between the sixth and thirteenth centuries C.E. Flourished on the gold and salt trade
Chinese dynasty that reunified China after a long period of darkness brought about by the fall of the Han. Quickly succeeded by the Tang Dynasty
Holy Roman Empire
Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. It lasted from 962 to 1806. (pp. 260, 449)
Empire created by indigenous Muslims in western Sudan of West Africa from the thirteenth to fifteenth century. It was famous for its role in the trans-Saharan gold trade.
successor state to Mali; dominated middle reaches of Niger valley; formed as independent kingdom under a Berber dynasty; capital at Gao; reached imperial status under Sunni Ali
In forest of Niger delta, rulers called oba (also descents of Ife), major trade center, had sculptures, ivory furs, died out because of slave trade.
Dynasty after the Tang Dynasty that was forced to relocate to the south after losing power
a large collection of nomadic tribes that lived north of china in the "steppes" who were later united by Genghis Khan. They formed the largest land empire in history under him
based on agriculture; formed on the lower Congo River by late 15th century; capital at Mbanza Kongo; ruled by hereditary monarchy
a country of southern Africa. Various Bantu peoples migrated into the area during the first millennium, displacing the earlier San inhabitants
trading center, and powerful ancient kingdom in northern present-day Ethiopia
dynasty often referred to as China's Golden age that reigned during 618 - 907 AD; China expands from Vietnam to Manchuria
Historians' name for the eastern portion of the Roman Empire from the fourth century onward, taken from 'Byzantion,' an early name for Constantinople, the Byzantine capital city. The empire fell to the Ottomans in 1453. (250)