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The work of scientist usually begin with?

careful observations

Information gathered from observing a plant grow 3 cm over a two week period is called?

data

Based on your observations, you suggest that the presence of water could be accelerate the growth of bread mold. This is?

A hypothosis

A hypothesis

may be disproved by a single experiment

During a controlled experiment, a scientist isolates and tests?

a single variable

what is the benefit of publishing in the journal?

The quality of the report will meet high scientific standards.

what does a reviewer do during peer-review?

check for mistakes and bias.

A well-tested explanationthat explains a lot of observations is

a theory

which of the following is a question that can be answered by science?

How does DNA influence a persons health?

How do you determind the independent variable in an experiment?

It is the one thing that the experimenter changes.

How do you identify the dependent variable in an experiment?

It is the measurable result of the independent variable.

which of the following is NOT a characteristic of all living things?

ability to move

which of the following characteristics of living things best expains why some north american birds fly south for the winter?

Living things respond to their environment.

cell specialization allows cells to

perform different functions.

The process by which organisms keep everything inside their bodies within certain limits is called?

homeostasis

the basic unit of length in the metric system is the

meter

how many meters are in 2.4 km?

2,400 m

Using a universal system of measurement is MOST important during which part of scientific methology?

collecting data

Scientist will never know why dinosaurs became extinct. Therefore, scientist should

continue to learn as much as they can about dinosaur extinction.

Suppose that a scientist proposes a hypothesis about how a newly discovered virus affects humans. Other virus researchers would likely

design new experiments to test the proposed hypothesis.

How do scientific theories compare to hypotheses?

Theories unify a broad range of observations and hypotheses

Which of the following characteristics of living things best explains why dogs pant or sweat through their paws when hot?

Living things maintian internal balance

Would a scientist who studies evolution also have to learn about other branches of biology? why or why not?

Yes; the different branches of biology are interrelated.

The basic unit of mass in the metric system is the

gram

Which of the following should a scientist do to make it easier for others to replicate his experiment?

Use the meteric system when communicating procedures and results.

How many meters are in 98.6 mm?

.0986 m

The three particles that make up atoms are

protons, nuetrons, and electrons

what are found in the space surrounding the nucleus of an atom?

electrons

which of the following makes up a molecule of water?

two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen

A covalent bond is formed as the result of

sharing electrons

what type of electron is available to form bonds?

valence

what type of ion forms when an atom loses electrons?

positive

which property of water causes the curved surface?

adhesion

water molecules are polar with the

oxygen side being slightly negative and the hydrogen being slightly positive.

The most acidic rain fall in New York state has a pH of

4.22

A substance with a pH of 6 is called

an acid.

why is carbon so special compared to other elements?

carbon can bond to one another and form a lot of different structures.

what kinds of atoms are bonded to carbon atoms in the molecule above?

hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen

How many covalent bonds can a corban atom form?

4

Amino acid is to protien as

simple sugar is to strach

which of the following is NOT a monomer?

A protein

which of the following is NOT a function of proteins?

store and transmits genetic information.

which statement is true about macromolecules?

Protiens are made up of amino acids.

In chemical reactions, atoms are

rearranged

when hydrogen and oxygen combine to form water, water is

a product

Enzymes affect the reactions in living cells by changing the

speed of the reaction.

The energy needed to get a reaction started is the

activation energy

The branch of biology dealing with interactions amoung organisms and between organisms and their environment is called

ecology

which of the following descripitions about the organization of an ecosystem is correct?

species make up populations, which make up communities

The simplest grouping of more than one kind of one organism in the biosphere is

a community

the lowest level of environmental complexity that includes living and noniving factors is the

ecosystem

Plants are

primary producers

how do most primary producers make their own food?

by using light energy to make carbohydrates.

which of the following organism does NOT require sunlight to live?

chemosynthesis bacteria

What is an ecological model of the relationships that form a netwrok of complex interactions amoung organisms in a community from producers to decomoposers?

Food web

what animals eat both producers and comsumers?

omnivores

what is the term for each step in the transfer of energy and matter with in a food web?

trophic level

A bird stalks, kills, and eats the insect. which pair of ecological terms describes the bird?

carnivore, consumer

Of the remaining energy, some is used for the organisms life process, and the rest is

eliminated as heat.

A word that means the same thing as consumer is?

heterortroph

Each of the following is an abiotic factor in the envirnoment EXCEPT

plant life

Which is a biotic factor that affects the size of a population in a specific ecosystem?

number and kinds of predators in the ecosystem.

what is at the base of all ecological pyramids?

producers

Matter can recycle throught the biosphere because

biological systems do not use up matter but they tranform it.

the repeated movement of water between Earth's surface and the atmosphere is called?

the water cycle

what is happenig to the water at D?

water is seeping into the ground to become ground water.

Carbon cycles throughout the biosphere is in all the following processes EXCEPT

transpiration

Nitrogen fixation is carried out primarily by

bacteria

which of the following has a direct role in the nitrogen cycle?

all of the above

organisms need nutrients through living systems are different because

energy flows in one direction, and nutrients recycle

what can happen after a lake receives a large input of a limiting nutrient?

an algal bloom occurs

phosphorus is very important for living things because living ogranisms need phosphorus for

DNA and RNA

which part of the water cycle is a biological process?

transpiration

Organisms need nutrients inorder to

carry out essential life functions

biogeochemical cycling ensures that

nutrients will be circulated throughout the biosphere

why cant the producers in some ecosystems make an unlimited supply of organic material?

One or more nutrients are in short supply.

The average conditions of the atmoshpere in a particular area are reffered to as the area's?

climate

How does an area's weather differ from the area's climate?

Weather is the areas day to day conditions and climate is the areas average conditions.

the greenhouse effect is

a natural phenomenon that maintains earths temperature range.

Earth has three main climate zones because of the differences in latitude and, thus,

distribution of sunlight.

Which of the following is a biological aspect of an organisms niche?

the way it gets its food.

An organisms niche is

the range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way it obtains what it needs to surviv and reproduce

No two species can occupy the same habitat at the same time

because of the competitive exclusion principle.

an interaction in which an animal feeds on plants is called?

herbivory

A wolf pack hunts, kills, and feeds on a moose. In this interaction, the wolves are?

predators

A symbotic relationship in which both species benefit is?

mutualism

A symbotic relationship in which one organism is harmed and the other one benefits is?

parasitism

how is parasitism different from commensalism?

one organism is harmed in parasitism and no organisms are harmed in commensalism.

primary succession would most likely occur after

a lava flow.

what is one difference between primary and secondary succession?

secondary succession begins on soil and primary succession begins on newly exposed surfaces.

which of the following occurs during the ecological succession of an ecosystem?

living organisms modify their environment a little at a time.

An example of a human caused disturbance is?

forest clearing

which biome is characterized by very low temperatures, little precipitation, and permafrost?

tundra

which two biomes have the least precipitation

tundra and desert.

which animal would be found in the biome that has cold to moderate winter, warm summers, and fertile soils, and is home to a variety of vegetation, such as coniferous trees, broadleaf decidous trees, flowering, shrubs, and ferns?

whitetailed deer

one of the main characteristics of a population is its?

geographic range

which of the following tells you population density?

the number of bacteria per sqaure millimeter

the movement of organisms into a range is called?

immigration

which are two ways a population can decrease in size?

decrease birthrate and emigration

If a population grows larger than the carrying capacity of the environment, the

death rate may rise.

which would be least likely to be affected by a density dependent limiting factor?

a small, scattered population

which of the following is a density independent limiting factor?

earthquake

which of the following is a density independent limiting factor?

the eruption of a volcano

demography is the scientific study of?

human populations

demographic transition is change from high birth rates and high death rates to?

low birth rates and low death rates.

countries in the first stage of demographic transition have?

a high death rate and a high birth rate

the human population experienced exponential growth after?

the Industrial revolution began

The various growth phases through which most populations go are represented on?

a logistic growth curve

As resources in a population become less available, the popuation

declines rapidly

Sea otters live in the ocean. which of the following is NOT likely to be a limiting factor on the sea otter population?

drought

Which will reduce competition within a species population?

fewer individuals.

Each of the following is a density dependent limiting factor EXCEPT

temperature

A disease resulting in the deaths of one third of a dense popultion of bats in a cave would be a?

density dependent factor

what is one negative consequence of the Industrial revolution?

environmental harm from the burning of fossil fuels.

An example of a renewable resource is?

trees

Thw 1930s Dust Bowl in the Great Plains was caused by?

poor farming practices

when farming, overgrazing, climate change, and/or seasonal drought change farmland that cannot support plant life, it is called?

desertification

An example of sustainable resource use is the use of predators and parasites to?

control pest insects

DDT was used to?

kill insects

One property that makes DDT hazardous over the long run is that DDT is?

subject to biological magnification

As DDT moves up the trophic levels in food chains or food webs its concentration

increases

The gray brown haze often found over large cities is called?

smog

Raising cattle and farming rice contribute to air pollution by?

releasing the greenhouse gas methane into the atmoshpere.

biodiversity is valuable partly because it

contributes to medicine and agriculture.

Introduced species can threathen biodiversity because they can

crowd out native species

All of the following are threats to biodiversity EXCEPT

habitat preservation

An ecological hot spot is an area where

many habitats and species are at high risk of extinction.

One measure of the human impact on the biosphere is called

ecological footprint

The first step to using ecology to solve envirnomental problems is to

identify the problem

One of the greatest threats today to biodiversity is

altered habitats

Corn planted in a field that has been previously planted with legumes and then plowed under is likely to be

more productive because bacteria living on the roots of legumes fix nitrogen in the soil.

All the interconnected feeding relationships in an ecosystem make up a food

web

the total amount of living tissues within a given trophic level is called the

biomass

what are the three kinds of ecological pyramids?

energy, biomass, and numbers

which is a factor that could interrupt the progress of succession?

another natural disturbance

How are phase 1 and phase 2 of logistic growth similar?

A population is increasing, moving toward its carrying capacity during both phases.

water lilies do not grow in desert sand because water availabilty to these plants in a desert is

a limiting factor

A major factor that negaticely affects biodiversity is

habitat fragmentation

During a long period when there is no rainfall, a mountain lion may temperarily leave its usual hunting terrirtory to drink from a farm pond. This behavior is due to?

the change in an abiotic factor in its environment

which is an example of how biotic abiotic factors interact?

Tree roots split apart rocks in the ground

The greenhouse effect is

a natural phenomenon that maintains Earths temperature range

The tendency for warm air to rise and cool air to sink results in

global wind pattern

A tropical rain forest may not return to its original climax community after which of the following disturbances?

clearing and farming

which factor might not contribute to an exponential growth rate in a given population?

reduced resources

As resource in a population become less available, the population

reaches carrying capacity

In a logistic growth curve, exponential growth is the phase in which the population

grows quickly

All of the following are threats to biodiversity EXCEPT

habitat preservation

Protecting an entire ecosystem ensures that

interactions amoung many species will be preserved

when calculating a populations ecological footprint, one has to take into account the

resources needed to clean up the populations waste

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