What fundamental issues of development have scholars addressed throughout history?
Nature vs. Nurture
continuity vs. discontinuity
universal vs. context-specific development
What is Nature vs Nurture?
degree of genetic influences and environmental influences
What is continuity vs. discontinuity?
is development a smooth transition or is it a series of abrupt shifts
What is Universal vs. Context specific Development?
is there just one path of development or several
What are the basic forces in the biopsychosocial framework?
Biological Forces, Psychological forces, Sociocultural forces, and Life-cycle forces
What are biological forces?
genetics and health related factors
What are psychological forces?
internal perceptions, cognitive, emotional, and personality factors
What are life forces?
differences in ow the same event affects people of different ages
Who was the pioneer of psychosocial theory?
What was Eriksons theory?
personality developement is determined by the interaction of an internal plan and external societal demands
What were Erikson's eight stages?
1. Basic trust vs. mistrust 2. Autonomy vs. shame and doubt 3. Initiative vs. guilt 4. Industry vs. inferiority 5. Identity vs. identity confusion 6. Intimacy vs. isolation 7. Generativity vs. stagnation 8. Integrity vs. despair
Who was the theorist behind cognitive-developmental theory?
What were Piaget's four stages?
1. Sensorimotor 2. Preoperational Thinking 3. Concrete operational thought 4. Formal operational thought
What is a developmental theory?
Organized knowledge to provide explanations for human behaviors
How do psychodynamic theories account for development?
behavior is determined by the way people deal with conflicts at different ages
What is the focus of learning theories of development?
the development of observable behavior
What is operant conditioning?
based on reinforcement, punishment, and environmental control of behavior
How do cognitive-developmental theories explain changes in thinking?
People deal with information like a computer does
What are the main points in the ecological and systems approach?
there is a best-fit between a person's abilities and the demands placed on that person by the environment
What are the major tenets of life-span and life course theories?
human development is characterized by multidirectionality, plasticity, historical context, and multiple causation