paired organs that cap the superior borders of the kidneys
The adrenal gland is on top of (but not a part of) the kidney. What 2 sections make up the adrenal, were are they located and what are their function(s)?
Adrenal cortex=outer section; secretes steroid hormones that participate in regulation of mineral and energy balance; Adrenal Medulla=inner section; secretes catecholamine hormones (SNS, Fight or Flight)
The _______ is divided into 3 zones: outer zona glomerulosa, middle zona fasciculate and inner zona reticularis.
Aldosterone: From what is it excreted? What is its function?
Excreted from adrenal cortex; stimulates kidneys to reabsorb Na+ and water while excreting potassium (helps to increase blood volume and pressure); goes hand-in-hand with ADH.
________ is the nucleus of all steroid hormones.
The ___________ secretes steroid hormones called corticosteroids/corticoids (3 subcategories of corticosteroids).
What is the name of the group of steroids excreted by the adrenal cortex? What are the 3 subcategories and each of their functions?
Corticosteroids: 1) Mineralocorticoids=regulate Na and K balance "for steroid and K" influence; 2) Glucocorticoids=suppress immune system; regulates metabolism of glucose
GAS: What does it stand for and what is it?
general adaptation syndrome; nonspecific response of the body (involving adrenal gland) to readjust itself following any demand made upon it.
Where is the thyroid gland located?
Just below larynx with its two lobes positioned on either side of trachea.
Which gland sets basal metabolic rate?
(aka how quickly you use oxygen) Thyroid gland
increased metabolic rate (too much secretion of thyroid hormone); often seen in young adults
decreased metabolic rate (inadequate secretion of thyroid hormone); seen in middle aged females, runs in families, very easily treatable.
If the parathyroid glands are responsible for the increase in calcium levels in cells, what is responsible for lowering these levels (when needed)?
_______ promotes the lowering of blood glucose and the storage of energy, while _______ has antagonistic effects that raise blood glucose.
The _______ is both an endocrine and exocrine gland.
What is the specifically discussed disease of the thyroid (name and description)?
Iodine-deficiency (endemic) goiter; abnormal growth of thyroid gland by an insufficient amount of iodine in diet which causes the thyroid to produce inadequate amounts of T4 and T3.
The endocrine portion of the pancreas consists of scattered clusters of __________. These structures are most common in the body and tail of pancreas.
Pancreatic islets (aka islets of Langerhans)
In the pancreas, _______ cells increase blood glucose, while _______ cells decrease it.
Beta cells (insulin); alpha cells (glucagon)