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name the two major components of the integumentary system

cutaneous membrane, accessory structures

The epidermis is part of which component?

cutaneous membrane

Identify the layers of the epidermis

stratum germinativum, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, stratum corneum

Dandruff is caused by excessive shedding of cells from the outer layer of skin in the scalp. This, dandruff, is composed of cells from which epidermal layer?

stratum corneum

A splinter that penetrates to the third layer of the epidermis of the palm is lodged in which layer?

The stratum granulosum

Why does swimming in fresh water for an extended period cause epidermal swelling?

Fresh water is hypotonic in respect to skin cells, so water moves into the cells by osmosis, causing them to swell

Some criminals sand the tips of their fingers so as not to leave recognizable fingerprints. WOuld this practice permanently remove fingerprints? Why or why not?

No. The ridges of fingerprints are formed in layers of the skin that are constantly regenerated, so these ridges will eventually reappear. The pattern of the ridges is determined by the arrangement of the tissue on the dermis, which is not effected by sanding.

2 pigments contained in the epidermis

carotene and melanin

orange-yellow pigment

carotene

brown or yellow-brown pigment

melanin

Why does exposure to sunlight or sunlamps darken skin?

When exposed to the UV radiation in sunlight or sunlamps, melanocytes in the epidermis and dermis synthesize the pigment melanin, darkening the skin

why does the skin of a fair-skinned person appear red during exercise and hot weather?

When skin gets warm, arriving oxygenated blood is diverted to the superficial dermis for the purpose of eliminating heat. The oxygenated blood imparts a reddish coloration to the skin

Explain the relationship between sunlight exposure and vitamin D3 synthesis

In the presence of UV radiation in sunlight, epidermal cells in the stratum spinosum and stratum germinative convert a cholesterol related steroid into cholecalciferol, also known as vitamin d3

Name the sources of epidermal growth factor in the body

salivary glands and duodenal glands produce epidermal growth (EGF)

Identify some roles of EGF pertaining to the epidermis

promotes the divisions of germinative cells in the stratum germinativum and the stratum spinosum, accelerates the production of keratin in differentiating keratinocytes, stimulates epidermal development and epidermal repair after injury, and stimulates synthetic activity and secretion of epithelial cells

describe the location of the dermis

A connective tissue layer that lies between the epidermis and the hypodermis

Where are the capillaries and the sensory neurons that supply the epidermis located?

In the papillary layer of the dermis

What accounts for the ability of the dermis to undergo repeated stretching?

The presence of elastic fibers and the resilience of skin turgor allow the dermis to undergo repeated cycles of stretching and recoil returning to its original shape

list the two terms for the tissue that connects the dermis to underlying tissues

hypodermis or subcutaneous layer

A layer of loose connective tissue below the dermis; it is also called the subcutaneous layer or superficial fascia. It is not considered an actual part of the integument, but it is important in stabilizing the potion of the skin in relation to underlying tissues

hypodermis

identify sacral functions of subcutaneous fat

provides insulation to help reduce heat loss, serves as an energy reserve, acts as a shock absorber for the body

what does the cutaneous membrane consist of

epidermis and dermis

functions of the epidermis

controls skin permeability, protection, and vitamin d3 synthesis

functions of the dermis

thermoregulation, sensory reception, supports epidermis, nourishes epidermis

functions of the cutaneous membrane

protect tissues front trauma chemicals and pathogens

functions of accessory structures

produce secretions, protect epidermal surfaces, provide sensations

Accessory structures includes..

Hair follicles, exocrine glands, and nails

functions of hair follicles

hair production, provide sensations, and protection

functions of exocrine glands

thermoregulation, excretion, and lubrication

functions of the nails

protects and support toes and fingers

The integument is the:

skin

the skin or integument consists of

cutaneous membrane and subcutaneous layer

2 components of the cutaneous membrane

epidermis and dermis

The epidermis consists of what kind of cells?

stratified squamous epithelial cells

4 layers of the epidermis(deepest to surface)

stratum germinativum, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, and stratum corneum

2 regions of the dermis

superficial and deeper

the superficial region of the dermis is also called the

papillary layer

the papillary layer consists of

loose, connective tissue capillaries and nerves

the deeper region of the dermis is also called the

reticular layer

the reticular layer of the dermis consists of

dense, irregular connective tissue, and collagen fibers

the subcutaneous layer is also called the

hypodermis

the hypodermic consists of

loose, connective tissue and fat cells

the hypodermis area is used for

subcutaneous injections

the layers of the epidermis, beginning with the deepest layer and proceeding outwardly, include the stratum:

germinativum, spinosum, granulosum, corneum

the layers of the epidermis where mitotic divisions occur are:

germinativum and spinosum

the epidermis consists of a:

stratified squamous epithelium

epidermal cells in the strata spinosum and germinativum function as a chemical factory in that they can convert:

steroid precursors to vitamin D when exposed to sunlight

differences in skin color between individuals reflect distinct:

levels of melanin synthesis

that basic factors interacting to produce skin color are:

circulatory supply and pigment concentration and composition

skin exposure to small amounts of UV radiation serves to:

convert a steroid related to cholesterol into Vitamin D

excessive exposure of the skin to UV radiation may cause redness, edema, blisters, and pain. The presence of blisters classifies the burn as:

second degree

When exposed to UV radiation, epidermal cells in the stratum germinativum convert a cholesterol-related steroid into:

Vitamin D3

excessive collection of fluid in the tissues

edema

what do vitamins act as?

coenzymes

the hormone essential for the normal absorption of calcium and phosphorus by the small intestine is:

calcitrol

epidermal growth factor EF has widespread effects on epithelia tissue in that it:

promotes the division of germinative cells, accelerates the production of keratin, and stimulates epidermal development and repair

the two major components of the dermis are:

a superficial papillary and deep reticular layer

Special smooth muscles in the dermis that, when contracted, produce "goose bumps" are called:

arrector pilli

the primary tissues comprising the subcutaneous layer are:

areolar and adipose

the reason the subcutaneous layer is useful for subcutaneous injection by hypodermic needle is that it has a:

limited number of capillaries and no vital organs

an important function of the subcutaneous layer is to:

stabilize the position of the skin in relation to underlying tissues

What do the accessory structures consist of

hair, glands, and nails

3 kinds of hair

vellus, terminal, and intermediate

vellus is also called:

peach fuzz

what does the vellus hairs cover

body surfaces

what kind of hair is terminal hair

dark, heavy, curly

terminal hairs cover:

head, eyelashes, and eyebrows

intermediate hairs cover

arms and legs

2 types of glands

sebaceous and sweat

sebaceous glands secrete:

sebum

functions of sebum

lubrication, inhibits bacterial growth

3 types of sweat glands

apocrine, merocrine, and ceruminous

what are merocrine glands also called

eccrine glands

apocrine glands produce:

odors

functions of merocrine glands

sensible perspiration

ceruminous glands secrete

cerumen

another name for cerumen:

ear wax

Nail structures:

eponychium, lunula, and hyponichium

the eponychium is part of the:

stratum corneum

the eponychium is also called the:

cuticle

The lunula forms the

pale crescent

the hyponychium consists of:

thickened stratum corneum

the hyponychium is located under:

the distal nail plate

keratinocytes

epidermis

converted to vitamin A

carotene

Vitamin D

cholecalciferol

produced by salivary glands

EGF

cutaneous plexus

dermis

subcutaneous layer

hypodermis

embryonic hair

lanugo

secreted lipid product

sebum

eponychium

cuticle

blood clot

scab

decreased melanocyte activity

effects of aging

thermoregulation

nervous system

The first line of defense against an often hostile environment is the:

epidermis

In areas where the epidermis is thick, the cells are flattened, densely packed, and filled with eleidin. This layer is called the:

stratum lucidum

Keratin, a fibrous protein, would be found primarily in the:

stratum corneum

Mobile macrophages that are a part of the immune system and found scattered among the deeper cells of the epidermis are called:

Langerhans cells

The peptide secreted by the pituitary gland, which darkens the skin, is:

MSH

The pigment that absorbs UV radiation before it can damage mitochondrial DNA is:

melanin

Bone development is abnormal and bone maintenance is inadequate if there is a dietary deficiency or lack of skin production of:

cholecalciferol

Stimulating synthetic activity and secretion by epithelial cells is among the roles of:

EGF

the type of tissue that comprises the most of the dermis is:

connective

the subcutaneous layer, or hypodermic, is extensively interwoven with the connective tissue fibers of the:

reticular layer

a bundle of smooth muscle cells, which extends from the papillary layer of the dermis to the connective tissue sheath surrounding the hair follicle, is the:

arrector pili

Hair develops from a group of epidermal cells at the base of a tube-like depression called a:

follicle

variations in hair color reflect differences in structure and variations in the pigment produced by:

melanocytes

the secretion that lubricates and inhibits the growth of bacteria on the skin is called:

sebum

The glands in the skin that become active when the body temperature rises above normal are the:

eccrine glands

the sweat glands that communicate with hair follicles are called:

apocrine

If the body temperature drops below normal, heat is conserved by a ___ in the diameter of dermal blood vessels

decrease

the stratum corneum that covers the exposed nail closest to the root is:

eponychium

during a sustained reduction in circulatory supply, the skin takes on a blush coloration called:

cyanosis

a second degree burn is readily identified by the appearance of:

blisters

an essential part of the healing process during which the edges of a wound are pulled closer together is called:

contraction

in older adults, dry and scaly skin is usually a result of a decrease in ___ activity

glandular

the system that stimulates contraction of arrestor pili muscles to elevate hairs of the integument is the ___ system

nervous

Hair production occurs in the:

reticular layers of the dermis

the natural factor responsible for varying shades of hair color is:

the type of pigment present

when the body temperature becomes abnormally high, thermoregulatory homeostasis is maintained by:

an increase in sweat gland activity and blood flow to the skin

nail production occurs at an epithelial fold not visible from the surface called the:

nail root

the immediate response by the skin to an injury is:

bleeding occurs and mast cells trigger an inflammatory response

the practical limit to the healing process of the skin is the formation of inflexible, fibrous, noncellular:

scar tissue

hair turns gray or white due to:

decrease melanocyte for breakfast

sagging and wrinkling of the integument occurs from:

a decrease in the elastic fibrous network of the dermis

the primary interaction between the integumentary system and digestive system is the:

digestive system synthesizes vitamin D3 needed for absorption of calcium and phosphorus

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