Mitosis, Meiosis, and Reproduction

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Mitosis

the exact duplication of a cell as to form identical nuclei during cell division.

Meiosis

how sex cells are produced. Reduction Division.

Spermatogenesis

the production of sperm. 4 mature sperms are produced.

Oogenesis

the production of egg cells. 1 mature egg and 3 polar bodies are produced.

Chromatin

nuclear DNA in the form of thin, twisted threads, made of DNA wound around histones.

Chromosome

formed when the chromatin shortens and thickens.

Asexual Reproduction

sexual reproduction with one parent cell.

Binary Fission

asexual reproduction; the two daughter cells are equal.

Budding

asexual reproduction; the two daughter cells are not equal.

Sister Chromatid

two identical chromosomes.

Centromere

what the sister chromatids are help together by.

Interphase

when DNA replicates, the cell increases in size, synthesizes proteins, organelles, etc, and centrioles replicate. The DNA is in the form of chromatin.

Prophase

Chromatid condenses into visible doubled chromosomes. The centrioles move to opposite poles of the cell. Microtubules form asters and spindle. Some spindles attach to centromeres. Chromosome pairs start to move to the cell's equator. The nucleolus and nuclear membrane have disappeared.

Metaphase

Chromosome pairs are lined up along the cell's equator. Then centromeres divide, sister chromatids seperate.

Anaphase

Chromosomes move to opposite poles, one complete chromosome set is now at each pole.

Telophase

Chromosomes uncoil, going back to chromatin form. Spindle and asters disappear. Nuclear membranes form around each set of chromosomes and nuclei reappear.

Cytokinesis

the splitting of the cytoplasm, resulting in two new daughter cells. ANIMALS: cell membrane pinches in. PLANTS: a cell plate forms, and cellulose is deposisted, forming a new cell wall.

Cancer

uncontrolled division of abnormal cells.

Somatic Cell

body cell.

Gamete

sex cell.

Sex Cell

egg or sperm.

Gonads

sex organs, testes and ovary.

Fertilization

the fusion between the nuclei of the sperm and the egg cell.

Zygote

the product of fertilization.

Diploid

chromosome number, 2n.

Homologous Pairs

two chromatids that have genes that code for the same traits.

Monoploid or Haploid

half the diploid number of chromosomes, 1n.

Gametogenesis

when the sperm and egg are produced.

Hermaphrodite

an organism containing both male and female gonads.

Homolog

a chromosome in a pair of homologous chromosomes.

Tetrad

chromatid pairs that come together and attach at their centromeres.

Synapsis

when tetrads come together or are formed.

Independant Assortment

how tetrads are oriented at random.

Crossing Over

when tetrads from, the homologous chromosomes are so close that they can exchange parts.

Variation

Independant Assortment and Crossing Over.

Flagellum

on sperm that allow it to swim through liquids.

Vegetative Propagation

asexual reproduction in plants.

Spindle

fibers that are attached to the chromatids and centriols that help pull the cell into two daughter cells.

Aster

star like structure that form from the centrioles

Microtubule

form asters and spindles

Regeneration

the ability of an organism to regrow lost bady parts.

Centriole

fromed to help move the cell.

Centromere

where the centrioles are located

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