Minoan civilization was not fortified implying that they had...
Mastery of the sea
The epic poems ILLIAD and ODYSSEY
a. reveal the circumstances of early Greek life
b. Reflect a society in which the warrior-aristocratic was dominant
c. existed a oral traditions before being written down AND
d. are less than reliable historical documents
The best word to describe the social and political organization of Homeric Greece is...
democratic - rule by the people
Tyranny in the Greek "polis" arose as...
Poverty and hunger drove populations to desperate covenants.
The strength of a "polis" quite literally depended on the...
strength of its men
What was the cause of the building of a strong navy in Athens?
Discovery of silver that was used to build a navy.
The battles at Marathon, Thermopylae and Salamis were by the Greeks against..
Greek religion was in every case...
administered by enlightened philosophers.
The philosopher Pythagoras said that the universe is best understood through the study of ...
math and music
Hellenic art that served private collectors was called...
One of these Greek styles of architectural columns is not actually a column and it is
Which group wanted to see how far they could go in explaining the world in purely human terms?
Who is called the "father of history"?
"Phallic songs" in Hellenic theater and drama deal with...
A 'prime mover,' a subject which medieval Christians used as an argument for the existence of God, proposed by which of these Hellenic Era Greeks?
The Greeks directly influenced the early Romans in all these fields EXCEPT....
a. the cultivation of the olive and vine
b. the use of a phonetic alphabet
c. low and social order
d. architectural style
e. literary styles and subject matter
THE ANS. IS: ARCHITECTURAL STYLE
The term "imperium" referred to the...
right of a Roman offical to command.
The Roman senator Cato
said Carthage must be destroyed
In 73 A.D. a rebellion shook Rome, led by Spartacus, who was a ....
gladiator from Thrace
was assassinated because he was such a strong republican.
The 2nd Triumvirate ended finally when....
Marc Antony committed suicide in Egypt
All of the following were true of literature in the late republic EXCEPT...
a. Octavian celebrated the deeds of his famous uncle Julius in an epic poem.
b. Lucretius follow the Greek pattern of teaching philosophy through poetry.
c. Cicero reached the apex of classical learning in his orations and commentaries
d. Sallust's histories searched for moral lessons in human events
e. Caesar's commentaries reached high literary levels while advancing his career. THE ANS. IS [A]
The absolute power Augustus held as 'princeps' led to ...
a. Victory of his candidates in elections
b. less popular participation in voting
c. little power in pupular assemblies
d. his great personal popularity
e. All of the above (a-d). ANS. IS [e]. NOTE: READ OVER THIS IN CHAPTER 6 -- he is going to change question.
Romanticized rural life
One or another of the five 'good emperors' did all of the following EXCEPT
a. reduced power of Roman officials
b. said who could become a Roman citizen
c. improved roads to bind the empire
d. suported building programs in the empire
e. created schools for poor children
ANS. IS [a]
Marcus Aurelius is seen as a Platonic figure because he
ruled as a philosopher king
By the second century Rome's frontier legioins were
on defense against invading German tribes
Romans' most important contribution to architecture was the use of
concrete on a massive scale
The Jewish monastic group called Essenes
wrote the Dead Sea Scrolls
Christianity's growth from the 2nd through the 4th centuries can NOT be attributed to
THE FERTILE CRESCENT:
The arc of argiculturally productive land where civilization first took root.
Before Common Era
After the Common Era
Western Europe (Europeans) divided time by using the ...
What is History?
History is a Stream.
What is a Time Continuum?
A line that goes on through all of man's time.
A form of reading.
What does AD mean?
in the year of our LORD [ana Dominie].
How was reading done in early times?
Reading was done aloud.
What was the first book called?
The first book was called a Codex.
What are the 5 categories of a Time Continuum?
1. Recorded - Everything that took place that happened was recorded.
2. Survives - Was not important unless it survived.
3. Discovered -
4. Translated - Scholars translated
5. Interpreted - [In a language we can understand. It's worth something once it is interpreted.
Everything in our books is based on...
Recorded, Survives, Discovered, Translated and Interpreted
History is Cyclical
Symbol of history. View of History. History goes in cycles. What goes around, comes around.
History as Progress...
Mankind [a step in the right direction].
History as Revolution means..
Drastic change. Definition - Sudden, violent change.
Three ways of interpreting history are:
Cyclical, Progress and Revolution
In "Rite of Passage", Rite means
The feeling that your culture, group, country, etc., was better than any elses [inferiority].
Named after one of Napoloean's generals who was pro-France. It Means super patrotism.
1. Wanting on wishing to line in a time that is past.
2. Judging values of another / previous time
Something out of place in time.
Judging people by appearance.
Will Durant - History is a Stream
Created by Will Durant. He was the historian who created along with his wife Ariel wrote a series of books on history. The book they wrote was "The Story of Mannkind". There were 13 to 14 Volumes. A professor who was 25 yrs. in Indiana when he met a 15 yr. old student named Ariel. There were married when he was 29 and she was 19. United States historian (1885-1981)
Who was Champollion? Rosetta Stone
A French scholar who was a Lutenant in Napolean's army around 1812. His avocation was a kind of archaeology. He heard about a stone called Rosetta Stone. The stone that inspired the translation of hieroglyphics by Jean Francois Champollion. The original is in the British Museum. A huge stone slab inscribed with hieroglyphics, Greek, and a later form of Egyptian that allowed historians to understand Egyptian writing.
Term to know when mankind is studied in groups:
Norms are Rules.
What are the two kinds of Norms.
What are NORMS?
Term to know when mankind is studied in groups: FOLKWAYS
Customs of the people
Term to know when mankind is studied in groups:
Mores are laws, moral laws [deals greatly with sex life all over the world]. Theft. exa. Napoleanic Code
Term to know when mankind is studied in groups:
Term to know when mankind is studied in groups:
What's right in one place, may not be right in another place.
Terms to know in regard to kin and relationships: BIGOMENIST
One with two wives.
Terms to know in regard to kin and relationships: MONOGAMY
Terms to know in regard to kin and relationships: BIGAMY
Terms to know in regard to kin and relationships: POLYGAMY
Terms to know in regard to kin and relationships: POLYANDRY
Woman with several husbands (Ancient China)
Terms to know in regard to kin and relationships: SERIAL MONOGAMY
A series of husbands (one at a time).
Terms to know in reference to diety
Diety means GOD
Terms to know in reference to diety: MONOTHEISM
The worshiping of one GOD.
Terms to know in reference to diety: ATHEISM
Without a GOD
Terms to know in reference to diety: POLYTHEISM
Worship of many/multiple Gods. Hindiuism, Buddism(examples)
Terms to know in reference to diety: AGNOSTICISM
The person who hedges his/her bets. [maybe there is or is not a grid]. Someone who is not sure about the existance of GOD.
Terms to know in reference to diety: PANTHEISM
GOD is in nature. Nature is in GOD.
Summary of Ancient Greece
Greece was a nation not in name but in culture. They were divided into city states. The city-states war against one another. Despite the wars, they developed intellectually in medicine.
What are the 4 Bonds that United the Greeks?
1. Language & Literature (Homer)
3. Olympic Games
4. Fear of Persia
Literature during the time of Ancient Greece was...
Language spoken by the Greeks was...
Koine Greek which is a common Language that united them. Agape is the Greek word for love of everyone. Hleo or Phileo is Greek for brotherly love. Eros is sexual love [comes from Latin].
Greeks and Religion:
Their Greek gods. The Greeks had a number of Anthropomorphic [means human quality] gods that can change into anything. Their gods took on human shape - transformed.
Greeks and Olympic Games included...
Racing [foot, sprints, chariot, horses, jumping, throwing discas, bolting, wrestling -- Greggico / Roman wrestling]. They put olive leaves on the winner. Women were not allowed to attend Olympics. All men were nude. War halted during time of Olympic Games.
What city in Greece did the first Olympic Games take place?
Greeks and "The fear of Persia"..
Phidippides, who was a runner for the Greeks, ran many miles to deliver messages regarding their emenies' location or position. [no other way of communication during time of ancient Greece.] Phidippides ran so hard and fast to deliver a message that once he delivered the message, he fell dead.
Conspicuous of the bonds that united them, the Ancient Greeks felt... And Referred to Non-Greeks as:
1. Superior to other people [ETHNOCENTRISM.].
Political Developments in Greece [roughly around 700 BC] were:
Homeric age. AND
Greek city -states were governed by:
a. A Tribal King and/or
b. A council of Elders [age and wisdom].
After 750 BC, city-states progressed:
1. From one man rule or Monarchy [King] TO
2. Rule by small powerful groups [nobles - Aristocracy] TO
3. Rule by the people of democracy
The city-state that was the Exception to Progression and Political Developments was the city-state of...
Geography's effect on Greece..
1. Mountains [divided the area into small economic Units]. Herds and Planting. Result: City-States. AND
2. Water [surrounded by and islands]. Result: It lend to trade throughout the Mediterranean Sea and Beyond. The only thing they had that was wanted AMBER. The Greeks were wanderers.
Greeks defended themselves from Persain [Iran today - Built Plutoon Bridge (Floating Bridge)] attacks by:
1. The Greeks sent aid to the Greek City-States in Asia Minor.
2. Darius, King of Persia, burned Miloetrus City.
3. Darius tries to conquer Athens by..
a. Sent a fleet of ships to sailt o unload men in Athens
but was destroyed in a storm.
b. 2nd - This was the Battle at Mathron. Darius lost this
c. 3rd - Persains modeled their Navy fther the Greeks.
The mistocles ship to ship battle at Salamis. The
Greeks under Themistocles, defeated the Persians at
d. That ended the Persain threat.
When a King has a wife and also has other wives, as well as other women - girlfriends or sex toys.
The Fall of Athens came about by the following events:
1. The Greeks formed the Delian League and it was lead with Athens.
a. People joined Athens in this league for protection
Persia as a city-state.
b. If any state tried to leave the league, Athens would
c. The war was called the Paloponnesian War.
d. Athens lost the war
450 to 476 BC
The beginning and ending of Rome.
The Fall of Athens came about by the following events - #2 [results of war]
2. Results of the Paloponnesian War was a disunion of city states-- it weakened all of them. Now its every man for themselves.
a. Greece was invaded by Philip of Macedon [who was
tough, physically strong and liked ladies.]
b. Alexander grew up with Philip & by age 18, was going
to war w/ Athens at Cornith.
c. All of the city-states pledged to support & help out
against Phillip in the war against Persia. Phillip did not
invade because he was killed.
d. Alexander takes over. The city state of Thebes did not
Roman Citizen Soldiers were
Peasants who fought willingly to save their land.
Rome hired and paid Mercenaries to fight because...
the Peasants refused to fight. However, Mercenary fighters were unreliable.
When Mohammand died, they were looking for the next Caliph; so the people broke into 2 groups [Sunni and Shia]. They chose Abu Bakr as the next Caliph. The 2 most famous names to Muslins were Mohammand and Ali. People did not like when Ali was killed. They broke into 2 separate groups: Sinni & Shia or Shiite. 85% are Sunni with one major exception - Iran. 15% of all were Muslins.
About ANCIENT EGYPT
Egypt was a British Colony. The Sudan is the largest country, landwise, in Africa. Mesopotamina [Iraq]
ENVIRONMENT in Ancient Egypt
Very little rain. Nile river began in Africa at Lake Victoria. The population cannot exist without water. The Nile River stppried water to this region.
Ancient Egypt - HERODOTUS...
Herodotus was given credit as being the father of history. Herodotus said that the Nile was the black lands, wherever it reached, it was silt -- top soil - very rich.
Who said "Egypt is the gift of the Nile" ?
BLACK LANDS as part of Environment in Ancient Egypt
Fertile soil from floods. Rich soil used for farming.
RED LANDS as part of Environment in Ancient Egypt
Utterly barren desert and stretched the horizions. It is the The Sahara-vast desert, located in Egypt. The land of desert area on either side of the Nile River
NILE'S BOUNTY as part of Environment in Ancient Egypt...
The good stuff. The bountiful crops. The bounty came and could be counted on because the Nile slows predictability. Orgin of the Nile - Lake Victoria and after its juction with Lake Atbura, (Blue Lake) flows together with Nile.
1ST CATARACT as part of Environment in Ancient Egypt
are like rapids -- like stairsteps. The first was Egypt's Southern Boundary (ancient Egypt). After the colorntae, there was no more Whitewater -- about 700 miles of no white water rapids.
ROADS WERE NOT NEEDED as part of Environment in Ancient Egypt
because the river was the highway. The river itself at its widest is the mouth.
Lake Atbura in Africa [near the Nile] is known as the...
VERTICAL CLIMATE (Ancient Egypt)
Winds blow from East to West and they collect moisture. Then, it hits the Costal link and runs into the mountains. Africans love the Monsoons.
Without the winds (Africa)
Africa would be like the desert.
What is a Monsoon?
What does a Monsoon do?
Monsoons bring water, hits land. It rains because it condenses into rain. Then the rain freezes as it goes over the mountain. Then it comes across the other side as dry or grassland.
Nature 'protected' as well as 'provided' for the Egyptians..(Vertical Climate)
On both sides of Egypt's borders are protected. On the west side, there are cliffs that help defends/defines Egypt. On the east, there is the Sinai which is part of the Sahara.
What does Sahara mean in Arabic?
Egypt was Politically Unified for....
1300 years before it was invaded. They had local battles but none from the outside beause of the protection provided by nature.
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT in Ancient Egypt
Nature divided Egypt into how many regions?
Two regions. 1. Upper Egypt [up-river] - the narrow valley [higher elevation]
2. Lower Egypt [down-river] created the broad delta.
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT in Ancient Egypt - Who Conquered the Delta?
Menes conquered the Delta and unified the land in 3100 BC. He unified uper and lower Egypt into one nation. It created a special type of hat that had two sides. One side was red and the other side was white.
What is identified by the person who wears this special hat [with one side red and one side white]?
He who wears this hat is the Boss.
WRITING: Civilization must have writing!
Modern society - you write when you have something to write about. We stimulate development a writing using the equipment we got developing data. For ancient peple, writing was arcane [wizzards]. The arcane Mystery of writing was that the mysteric markings made by scribes. People found it facinating. Modern people tend to trust whatever is in print or on the internet. The wire script means of Connotes -- still means something holy and can't be challenged.
For ancient peple, writing was....
The arcane Mystery of writing was that....
the mysteric markings made by scribes. People found it facinating
Writing - HIEROGLYPHS:
This is a sacred writing. Where part of this must have writing first appeared around 3000 BC. A fully developed script evolved in Ancient Egypt. Based on pictograph [little pictures for i love u]. They used brushes on an ink-like materal - papyrus. Papyrus is made from reeds growing on the banks of the Nile.
What is Papyrus?
Papyrus is an ink-like material that is made from reeds growing on the banks of the Nile River. An ancient pharmacy record which contains more than 700 drugs in more than 800 prescriptions
Writing - by 2000 BC, a faster cursive script [demotic]....
By 2000 BC, cursive writing appeared. It has been called DEMOTIC SCRIPT and was developed for ordinary documents. The word demotic came from the Greek
The Heart of Egypt's civilization was....
The primary link to the gods. All life is dependent on Pharoah. The Egyptians had 30,000 gods. Pharaoh was the [Incarnate (meaning becoming visible, physical, flesh)] god. His power was "absolute" as all of Egypt belonged to him. Pharaoh had vital functions. Egyptians view the world as order by Orcaten by chaos.
Means "great house" and is a title used by the rulers of Egypt. Pharaohs had absolute power because they were believed to be gods and could control the land and people of Egypt.
What was Pharaoh's Task?
To preserve "ma'at" [meaning justice, truth].
PHARAOH'S TASK continued....
To be just to all of the things that are his. There was a judging of the dead. Ocysus was the one [god] who judged the dead. Anubus is the god at death to judge. The practical negative confession. As questions are asked, Anubus is watching the Scale. Pharaoh's authority was so wide spread, Egypt did not develop a code of law. Pharaoh's will was all the law Egypt needed.
Why Egypt did not need a code of law?
Because Pharaoh's authority was so wide spread, Egypt did not develop a code of law. Pharaoh's will was all the law Egypt needed.
A monument that was vertical, either small or large, that held writing or pictures to commemorate or record something
Pharaoh had what type of bureaucracy to help him rule
a huge bureaucracy. [2000 titles have been discovered]
Pharaoh used a horde of royal agents who had many functions.
Pharaoh picked people to help him with the following:
Religious Ceremonies;Defense; Justice; Planning for the Nile's annual flooding; Coordinators of food preparation; Patronage for the artistian.
Longtes [anice] Trading
Public Works Projects
Oversee the army of scribes (writers who recorded everything]
Eygpt was divided into 'nomes' [meaning, to states or provinces, districts] (like states) - districts -
These nomes were called Nomarchs.
How many nomes are in upper (Southern) Egypt
How many nomes are in lower (Northern) Egypt
Pyramid temples used for worshiping. No human sacrifices. Huge towers built by the sumerians that were the used to worship and were center of village life and economy
Plays vital role in 'nature' religion
the modern secular religion in this aspect [THE SUN]. Nudists like to take their clothes off in the summer.
The Sun assumes what rank of the dominant element?
Brilliant light, heat, giver of life (ripens crops)
The Sun was regarded as...
a god and worshipped. More than that the Sun was archetypical god of all gods (the basis of them) - CHIEF GOD.
Was the Sun regarded as creator of the universe?
The Sun Cult developed at ...
Heliopolis [Helio is Greek for sun] and spread through Egypt.
Every local god came to be identified with....
Names of the sun god, also had forms such as..[a].
a. ATUN - human form, wore double crown of Egypt
also worn Pharaoh: Lower Egypt - red crown
Upper Egypt - white crown
Names of the sun god, also had forms such as..[b].
B. KHEPRA - scarab beetle - considered sacred. A scarab beetle will dig a hole, get it ready; gather up dung from wherever they can get it; cover the hole, lay eggs on it. This was their purpose.
Names of the sun god, also had forms such as..[c].
C. RA (RE) - form of a falcon head, human body; Bird; equated with Horus [son of Isis and Osiris]. Every day Ra sailed across the sky in solar boat. Ra aged during this trip across the horizon, but at dawn he was a newborn child again. By noon, he was in the prime of life, at sunset, he was old. He died and born again in the morning.
THE ASARAN DAM
Asaran Dam was built across the Nile and is 300 miles long. There was a type of fish that grew in salt water.
What are the three problems created by the dam and still with Egypt today?
1. they had to buy fertilizers
2. Fish died because of the lack of fresh water)
3. Schistosomiasis or Bilharzia [created by a snail-like bug] disease. [If you go into the water and wash where any opening area of your body is exposed, these tiny microscopic bugs get in your body. They make huge bruises on the body. The only ways to rid oneself from this disease is to either expose the areas to smoke or take some special pill that costs $15.
ABSOLUTISM OF THE PHARAOH:
Owned all land
Decided when fields should be sown
Controlled the irrigation system [from the Nile River]
Received the surplus crops [that's how they made money]
The Egyptian administrative system supported ....
the centralized absolutism of the Pharaoh.
The Egyptian government practiced what type of religion?
Theocratic [theo means god]. Refers to a government ruled by priests or some function by god.
How did Pharaoh combined religious and political functions?
Was Pharaoh an earthly king and also a god?
JUDGMENT OF THE DEAD:
- The dead were brought to the Underworld, a judgment hall.
- In the presence of the great gods, every Egyptian who died was tried [put on trial].
- Egyptians practiced negative confessioin [deny committing certain sins - 42 specific sins. 'I did not do...']
- Anubis, the jackal-headed god, and Thoth, the ibis-headed god, stood before a balance and took the heart of the dead one and put it on one pan of the balance [scale], and feather on the other [symbolizing truth].
- If the heart sank, it was heavy with sin.
- Those who passed the test went to 'heaven', and there they ate bread that was never dry, drank good wine.
- After 3000 years of life the soul [Ba] returned to the earth and entered the old body [which was preserved] and the person had to identify himself with Osiris [triumph over the grave]. Ba means Soul.
- Thus, the dead Egyptian was called Osiris [identifying process] AND
- Then the dead one was embalmed [after trial and everything].
The Paleolithic Era [Old Stone Age]
Old stone age, 2.4 million BCE to 50,000BCE, primitive tools and weapons, knowledge of fire, spoken language, burial of the dead(plain), nomadic travel, follow food source.
The Neolithic Era - "Revolution"
As one of the Stone Ages, the Neolithic Era is associated the erergence of a particular kind of store implement. New Stone Age. New Stone Age in which people learned to polish stones to make tools like saws and drills; how to make fire (previously fire was started by lightening).
The Neolithic period was based on the establishment of sedentary agriculture and domestication of animals around 10,000 BCE. The first of these civilizations developed in the Middle East and from there, spread to India, Europe and East Asia. The increase of food supply increased population. Jericho in modern day Israel was one of the first Neolithic villages. In these villages, a specialization of labor developed since everyone was not needed to grow food. As the pursuit of individual professions created its own wealth, it also created classes within society. With the move away from agriculture, women suffered as men relegated them to the home.
A legal code developed by King Hammurabi of Mesopotamia. The code was influential in the establishment of Hebrew and Islamic law and in the U.S. judiciary system. It specified crimes and punishments to help judges impose penalties.