BIO1H - C5 practical test

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Describe the relationship between substrate concentration and the initial reaction rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. Is this relationship linear?

reaction goes faster initially; relationship is linear

What happens to the initial reaction rate as substrate concentration increases?

it goes faster

Explain why the maximum initial reaction rate cannot be reached at low substrate concentrations.

there is not enough substrate

Enzymes function most efficiently at the temperature of a typical cell, which is 37 degrees Celsius (98.6 degrees Fahrenheit). Increases or decreases in temperature can significantly slower the reaction rate. What does this suggest about the importance of temperature-regulating mechanisms in organisms? Explain.

Enzymes change shape at higher temperatures and then reaction cannot happen

graph title

independent vs. dependent

hypotonic

more water; less solute

hypertonic

more solute; less water

isotonic

equal amounts of water and solute

solute always moves...

hyper to hypo

water always moves...

hypo to hyper

How can large particles of food or large amounts of liquid get into the cell without going through the transport proteins or between the phosopholipid bilayers?

put food in cell membrane, engulf food with membrane, make vesicle with membrane

What TWO things could happen to food as it enters the cell?

digested or stored

Cells don't have mouths. Which cell organelle/structure MIGHT function as a MOUTH?

cell membrane

Cells don't have digestive system organs. Which cell organelle/structure MIGHT function as a STOMACH?

lysosome

Which cell organelle/structure MIGHT function to store the food?

leukoplast

Which cell organelle/structure MIGHT store large amounts of liquid that the cell took in?

vacuole

What is the SACK called that formed around the candy peices?

vesicle

What structure did the vesicle sack come from?

cell membrane

What is the GENERAL PROCESS called that the cell uses to take in HUGE food particles and large amounts of liquids? What is the specific process for food and the one for liquids?

endocytosis; phagocytosis and pinocytosis

What is the PROCESS called that the cell uses to get rid of HUGE amounts of waste or to SECRETE large amounts of stuff to the outside of the cell?

exocytosis

pinocytosis

cell drinks fluids

phagocytosis

cell eats solids

receptor-mediated endocytosis

helps form vesicle

competitive inhibition

blocks active site and substrate cannot get in

noncompetitive inhibition

does not block active site, to other site, changes enzymes shape, substrate cannot get in

if concentration of the substrate was lower would reaction slow down or speed up?

slow down

if concentration of the substrate was higher would the reaction slow down or speed up?

speed up

PROBLEM: reaction can only go so fast before it...

maxes out

if concentration of the enzyme was higher would the reaction slow down or speed up?

speed up

if concentration of the enzyme was lower would the reaction slow down or speed up?

slow down

if temperature of the reaction was lower would the reaction slow down or speed up?

slow down

if temperature of the reaction was lower the reaction would slow down. Why?

molecules would move slow

if temperature of the reaction was higher would the reaction slow down or speed up?

speed up

if temperature of the reaction was higher the reaction would speed up. Why?

molecules would move fast

PROBLEM: if the temperature's too high,

enzyme changes shape and will not work

if reaction pH was lower than the pH range (acidic) would reaction slow down or speed up?

slow down

if reaction pH was higher than the pH range (basic) would reaction slow down or speed up?

slow down

high pH does what to an enzyme?

changes its shape

2 ways to change the shape of an enzyme using other chemicals to INHIBIT reaction:

competitive and noncompetitive inhibition

the vinager was ____tonic to the raw egg solution

hypo

the karo syrup was _____tonic to the inside of the vinager egg

hyper

the pure water was ____tonic to the karo syrup egg

hypo

the pure water egg would be ____tonic to coke

hypo

inactive enzymes use a(n) ___________ to become active

activator

active enzymes use a(n) ____________ to become inactive

inhibitor

slope =

y2-y1 over x2-x1

to calculate the rate of a reaction...

determine the slope of the line

steps of enzyme cycle (A B C)

A substrate goes to active site B bond between two bonds breaks (hydrolysis) C product leaves

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