Describe the relationship between substrate concentration and the initial reaction rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. Is this relationship linear?
reaction goes faster initially; relationship is linear
What happens to the initial reaction rate as substrate concentration increases?
it goes faster
Explain why the maximum initial reaction rate cannot be reached at low substrate concentrations.
there is not enough substrate
Enzymes function most efficiently at the temperature of a typical cell, which is 37 degrees Celsius (98.6 degrees Fahrenheit). Increases or decreases in temperature can significantly slower the reaction rate. What does this suggest about the importance of temperature-regulating mechanisms in organisms? Explain.
Enzymes change shape at higher temperatures and then reaction cannot happen
independent vs. dependent
more water; less solute
more solute; less water
equal amounts of water and solute
solute always moves...
hyper to hypo
water always moves...
hypo to hyper
How can large particles of food or large amounts of liquid get into the cell without going through the transport proteins or between the phosopholipid bilayers?
put food in cell membrane, engulf food with membrane, make vesicle with membrane
What TWO things could happen to food as it enters the cell?
digested or stored
Cells don't have mouths. Which cell organelle/structure MIGHT function as a MOUTH?
Cells don't have digestive system organs. Which cell organelle/structure MIGHT function as a STOMACH?
Which cell organelle/structure MIGHT function to store the food?
Which cell organelle/structure MIGHT store large amounts of liquid that the cell took in?
What is the SACK called that formed around the candy peices?
What structure did the vesicle sack come from?
What is the GENERAL PROCESS called that the cell uses to take in HUGE food particles and large amounts of liquids? What is the specific process for food and the one for liquids?
endocytosis; phagocytosis and pinocytosis
What is the PROCESS called that the cell uses to get rid of HUGE amounts of waste or to SECRETE large amounts of stuff to the outside of the cell?
cell drinks fluids
cell eats solids
helps form vesicle
blocks active site and substrate cannot get in
does not block active site, to other site, changes enzymes shape, substrate cannot get in
if concentration of the substrate was lower would reaction slow down or speed up?
if concentration of the substrate was higher would the reaction slow down or speed up?
PROBLEM: reaction can only go so fast before it...
if concentration of the enzyme was higher would the reaction slow down or speed up?
if concentration of the enzyme was lower would the reaction slow down or speed up?
if temperature of the reaction was lower would the reaction slow down or speed up?
if temperature of the reaction was lower the reaction would slow down. Why?
molecules would move slow
if temperature of the reaction was higher would the reaction slow down or speed up?
if temperature of the reaction was higher the reaction would speed up. Why?
molecules would move fast
PROBLEM: if the temperature's too high,
enzyme changes shape and will not work
if reaction pH was lower than the pH range (acidic) would reaction slow down or speed up?
if reaction pH was higher than the pH range (basic) would reaction slow down or speed up?
high pH does what to an enzyme?
changes its shape
2 ways to change the shape of an enzyme using other chemicals to INHIBIT reaction:
competitive and noncompetitive inhibition
the vinager was ____tonic to the raw egg solution
the karo syrup was _____tonic to the inside of the vinager egg
the pure water was ____tonic to the karo syrup egg
the pure water egg would be ____tonic to coke
inactive enzymes use a(n) ___________ to become active
active enzymes use a(n) ____________ to become inactive
y2-y1 over x2-x1
to calculate the rate of a reaction...
determine the slope of the line
steps of enzyme cycle (A B C)
A substrate goes to active site B bond between two bonds breaks (hydrolysis) C product leaves