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68.

Carbohydrate digestion begins in the ______________, whereas protein digestion begins in the ______________.

liver; small intestine

small intestine; stomach

mouth; stomach

mouth; small intestine

stomach; small intestine

mouth; stomach

69.

Lecithin prepares fats for hydrolysis by forming

triglycerides, fatty acids, and glycerol.

low density lipoproteins (LDL).

chylomicrons.

emulsification droplets.

micelles.

emulsification droplets

70.

Proteins are digested by different enzymes acting in the following sequence

pepsin, trypsin, carboxypeptidase, dipeptidase.

pepsin, trypsin, dipeptidase, carboxypeptidase.

trypsin, pepsin, carboxypeptidase, dipeptidase.

trypsin, pepsin, dipeptidase, carboxypeptidase.

dipeptidase, carboxypeptidase, pepsin, trypsin.

pepsin, trypsin, carboxypeptidase, dipeptidase.

71.

____________ transport lipids to the surface of the intestinal absorptive cells, which process them into _________________.

Fat droplets; micelles

Fat droplets; chylomicrons

Micelles; fat globules

Micelles; chylomicrons

Fat globules; micelles

Micelles; chylomicrons

72.

The three most abundant classes of nutrients are

carbohydrates, proteins, and minerals.

fats, proteins, and carbohydrates.

proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates.

triglycerides, starches, and proteins.

proteins, fats, and minerals.

fats, proteins, and carbohydrates.

73.

The muscle tone of the ________________ along the colon contracts it lengthwise, causing its walls to bulge and form pouches called _______________.

circular folds; ceca

taeniae coli; haustra

haustra; taeniae coli

internal sphincters; omental (epiploic) appendages

internal sphincters; ceca

taeniae coli; haustra

74.
Bacteria constitute about __________% of the dry weight of the feces.

2

14

30

55

80

30

75.
Defecation is stimulated by

the chemical composition of the feces.

bacterial flora in the feces.

water content of the feces.

lipid content in the feces.

stretching of the rectum.

stretching of the rectum.

76.
The buccal phase of swallowing is under _____________ control and the pharyngo-esophageal phase is ______________.

central nervous system; also controlled by the central nervous system

central nervous system; controlled by autonomic reflexes

autonomic nervous system; controlled by autonomic reflexes

voluntary; also voluntary

involuntary; also involuntary

central nervous system; controlled by autonomic reflexes

77.
Pepsinogen is produced by ____________ and is activated by ___________.

chief cells; carbonic anhydrase (CAH) secreted by parietal cells

chief cells; hydrochloric acid (HCl) secreted by parietal cells

parietal cells; hydrochloric acid (HCl) secreted by chief cells

parietal cells; carbonic anhydrase (CAH) secreted by chief cells

enteroendocrine cells; carbonic anhydrase (CAH) secreted by parietal cells

chief cells; hydrochloric acid (HCl) secreted by parietal cells

78.
The enterogastric reflex serves to

relax the stomach in preparation for swallowed food.

stimulate acid and enzyme secretion when food enters the stomach.

stimulate intestinal motility when there is food in the stomach.

inhibit gastric motility when there is chyme in the small intestine.

relax the ileocecal valve when chyme is on its way to the colon.

inhibit gastric motility when there is chyme in the small intestine.

79.

The _______________ synthesizes bile acids by metabolizing ____________________.

duodenum; neutral fats

ileum; bilirubin

gallbladder; cholesterol

pancreas; bile salts

liver; cholesterol

liver; cholesterol

liver; cholesterol

80.

Which of the following enzymes functions at the lowest pH?

salivary amylase

pancreatic amylase

pepsin

trypsin

dipeptidase

pepsin

81.

Which of these is the site of contact digestion?

gastric pits

surface of the gastric mucosa

intestinal crypts

brush border of the small intestine

cytoplasm in the cells of the small intestine

brush border of the small intestine

82.
The small intestine has a very large absorptive surface associated with all these structures except

circular folds (plicae circulares).

intestinal length.

microvilli.

villi.

rugae.

rugae.

83.
_____________ break(s) down _______________.

Lactase; glucose

Peptidases; proteins

Lipases; micelles

Lactose; lactase

Nucleases; nucleotides

Peptidases; proteins

84.
The sodium-glucose transport protein (SGLP)

is a uniport carrier.

is an antiport carrier.

uses solvent drag to transport glucose and sodium.

transports glucose and sodium from the intestinal lumen into the epithelial cells.

transports glucose from the intestinal lumen into the epithelial cells, and sodium in the opposite direction.

transports glucose and sodium from the intestinal lumen into the epithelial cells.

85.
Amino acids and monosaccharides are absorbed in the ____________, and fatty acids are absorbed in the _______________.

small intestine; large intestine

small intestine; liver

stomach; small intestine

stomach; large intestine

small intestine; small intestine too

small intestine; small intestine too

86.

Bacterial flora carry out all of the following except

digest most of the proteins we get in the diet.

synthesize vitamin K.

produce some of the gases found in flatus.

digest cellulose.

form part of the feces.

digest most of the proteins we get in the diet.

87.
Lymphatic vessels recover about ______________ of the fluid filtered by capillaries.

5%

15%

25%

50%

85%

15%

88.

Lymph is similar to blood plasma but very low in

protein.

carbon dioxide.

metabolic waste.

electrolytes.

sodium and potassium.

protein.

89.
Special lymphatic vessels called lacteals absorb dietary ______________ that are not absorbed by the blood capillaries.

water

glucose

vitamins

amino acids

lipids

lipids

90.
The ______________ tonsils are the largest, and their tonsillectomy (surgical removal) used to be one of the most common surgical procedures performed in children.

adenoid

lingual

palatine

pharyngeal

nasopharyngeal

palatine

91.

All these forces help lymph to flow except

rhythmic contractions of lymphatic vessels.

the thoracic pump.

the skeletal muscle pump.

the lymphatic node pump.

arterial pulsations squeezing lymphatic vessels.

the lymphatic node pump.

92.
_____________ are the largest of the lymphatic vessels and they empty into the _______________.

Lymphatic trunks; collecting ducts

Lymphatic trunks; subclavian arteries

Lymphatic trunks; subclavian veins

Collecting ducts; subclavian veins

Collecting ducts; subclavian arteries

Collecting ducts; subclavian veins

93.

Immune surveillance is a process in which ____________ nonspecifically detect and destroy foreign cells and diseased host cells.

T lymphocytes (T cells)

reticular cells

dendritic cells

macrophages

natural killer (NK) cells

natural killer (NK) cells

94.

This organ shows a remarkable degree of degeneration (involution) with age.

lymph node

thymus

spleen

pharyngeal tonsil

appendix

thymus

95.

This is the only lymphatic organ with afferent lymphatic vessels.

lymph node

thymus

spleen

red bone marrow

tonsils

lymph node

96.

Removal of the _________________ will be the most harmful of all for a one-year-old child.

spleen

lymph node

thymus

appendix

palatine tonsil

thymus

97.
All these belong to the second line of defense except

the macrophage system.

natural killer cells.

inflammation.

the gastric juices.

interferon and the complement system.

the gastric juices.

98.
______________ are found especially in the mucous membrane, standing guard against parasites, and allergens.

Monocytes

Lymphocytes

Basophils

Neutrophils

Eosinophils

Eosinophils

99.
___________ employ a "respiratory burst" to produce bactericidal chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hypochlorite (HClO).

Neutrophils

Basophils

Cytotoxic T cells

Natural killer cells

Suppressor T cells

Neutrophils

100.

Complement fixation can lead to any of the following effects except

enhanced inflammation.

opsonization.

endogenous pyrexia.

bacterial phagocytosis.

cytolysis.

endogenous pyrexia.

101.

________________ are secreted by cells infected with viruses, alerting neighboring cells and protecting them from becoming infected.

Complement system globulins

Interferons

Granzymes

Pyrogens

Perforins

Interferons

102.
A pyrogen is a substance that causes

inflammation.

opsonization.

complement fixation.

cytolysis.

fever.

fever.

103.

This is the first of a series of neutrophil behaviors in inflammation.

chemotaxis

margination

diapedesis

phagocytosis

opsonization

margination

104.
_______________ is not a cardinal sign characteristic of inflammation.

Impaired use

Redness

Pain

Heat

Swelling

Impaired use

105.

Basophils of the blood help to get defensive leukocytes to the site quickly by releasing an anticoagulant called _____ and a vasodilator called ____________.

bradykinin; histamine

selectin; prostaglandin

histamine; heparin

heparin; histamine

prostaglandins; selectin

heparin; histamine

106.

All these cellular agents participate in inflammation except

cytotoxic T cells.

helper T cells.

eosinophils.

neutrophils.

endothelial cells.

cytotoxic T cells.

107.
These are a group of proteolytic enzymes secreted by natural killer (NK) cells.

selectins

cytokines

granzymes

perforins

interferons

granzymes (might change)

108.

Complement C3b protein coats bacteria and stimulates phagocytosis by ___________ in a process called _____________.

lymphocytes and monocytes; opsonization

neutrophils and macrophages; cytolysis

mast cells and basophils; opsonization

mast cells and basophils; cytolysis

neutrophils and macrophages; opsonization

neutrophils and macrophages; opsonization

109.
_________________ are antimicrobial proteins.

Bradykinins

Interferons

Cytokines

Kinins

Prostaglandins

Interferons

110.
One characteristic of the immune response is specificity. This means that

immunity starts in defined organs in the body.

immunity starts in specialized tissues in the body.

immunity is carried on by a specific group of cells of the immune system.

immunity is directed against a particular pathogen.

immunity is carried on by a specific group of tissues of the immune system.

immunity is directed against a particular pathogen.

111.

Vaccination stimulates

natural active immunity.

artificial active immunity.

natural passive immunity.

artificial passive immunity

artificial specific immunity.

artificial active immunity.

112.
Cellular (cell-mediated) immunity is effective against

allergens.

venoms.

cancer cells.

extracellular viruses.

toxins.

cancer cells.

113.

A(n) ______________ is the region of the molecule that is recognized by antibodies.

epitope

antigen

hapten

major histocompatibility complex (MHC)

antibody monomer

epitope

114.

T cells achieve immunocompetence in

the bone marrow.

the bloodstream.

the spleen.

the thymus.

the liver.

he thymus.

115.

T cells undergo positive selection in the thymus, which means

they react against self antigens.

they develop surface antigen receptors.

they remain alive but unresponsive.

self-reactive T cells die and macrophages phagocytize them.

they multiply and form clones of identical T cells.

they multiply and form clones of identical T cells.

116.
The serum used for emergency treatment of snakebites stimulates

artificial passive immunity.

artificial active immunity.

natural passive immunity.

natural active immunity.

artificial specific immunity.

artificial passive immunity.

117.
The majority of T cells of the naive lymphocyte pool wait for the encounter with foreign antigens in

the plasma.

the thymus.

the lymphatic tissues.

the lymph.

most body fluids.

the lymphatic tissues.

118.
All of the following can act as antigen-presenting cells except

reticular cells.

dendritic cells.

macrophages.

B cells.

T cells.

T cells.

119.

Helper T (TH) cells recognize antigens when they are bound to a(n)

hapten.

immunoglobulin.

natural killer cell.

major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein.

basophil.

major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein.

120.

Antigen-presenting cells usually display processed antigens to T cells in

plasma.

lymph nodes.

thymus.

red bone marrow.

liver.

lymph nodes.

121.
Helper T (TH) cells do not

secrete cytokines that stimulate clonal selection of B cells.

secrete cytokines that stimulate clonal selection of cytotoxic T cells.

secrete cytokines that stimulate macrophage activity.

secrete inflammatory chemicals.

secrete fever-producing chemicals.

secrete fever-producing chemicals.

122.

_____________________ participate in both nonspecific resistance and immune response.

Memory T (TM) cells

Regulatory T (TR) cells

Natural killer (NK) cells

Helper T (TH) cells

Cytotoxic T (TC) cells

Helper T (TH) cells

123.

Cytotoxic T (TC) cells are like a natural killer (NK) cell because they both

secrete interferons.

secrete granzymes and perforin.

participate in the immune response.

participate in nonspecific resistance.

secrete tumor necrosis factor (TNF).

secrete granzymes and perforin.

124.

Memory T cells can live up to

weeks.

days.

decades.

years.

months.

decades.

125.
Antibodies do not

link antigen molecules together.

neutralize antigens by binding to regions of an antigen that can be pathogenic.

bind to enemy cells changing their shape, so their complement-binding sites are exposed.

differentiate into memory antibodies, which upon reexposure to the same pathogen would mount a quicker attack.

bind antigen molecules of two or more enemy cells and stick them together.

link antigen molecules together.

126.
This is the correct sequence of events in the humoral immune response.

antigen recognition → antigen presentation → differentiation → clonal selection → attack

antigen recognition → antigen presentation → clonal selection → differentiation → attack

antigen presentation → antigen recognition → clonal selection → differentiation → attack

antigen presentation → antigen recognition → clonal selection → attack differentiation

antigen recognition → differentiation → antigen presentation → clonal selection → attack

antigen recognition → antigen presentation → clonal selection → differentiation → attack

127.

Each immunoglobulin (Ig) has ______________ antigen-bonding site(s).

two

four

six

one

three

two

128.
_________________ constitutes about 80% of circulating antibodies in plasma.

IgD

IgE

IgA

IgM

IgG

IgG

129.

This is the class of immunoglobulin that provides passive immunity to the newborn.

IgD

IgE

IgM

IgA

IgG

IgG

130.


Before B cells secrete antibodies they differentiate into

stem cells.

antigen-presenting cells.

plasma cells.

T cells.

macrophages.

plasma cells.

131.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets mainly

helper T cells.

B cells.

plasma cells.

cytotoxic T cells.

natural killer cells.

helper T cells.

132.

Most common allergies are the result of

autoimmune diseases.

type IV (delayed) hypersensitivity.

type III (immune complex) hypersensitivity.

type II (antibody-dependent cytotoxic) hypersensitivity.

type I (acute) hypersensitivity.

type I (acute) hypersensitivity.

133.
Beta cell destruction that causes type 1 diabetes mellitus is a(n)

anaphylactic hypersensitivity.

type IV (delayed) hypersensitivity.

type III (immune complex) hypersensitivity.

type II (antibody-dependent cytotoxic) hypersensitivity.

type I (acute) hypersensitivity.

type IV (delayed) hypersensitivity

134.
A person who is HIV-positive and has a helper T (TH) cells count lower than ____________ has AIDS.

20,000 cells/μL

5,000 cells/μL

1,000 cells/μL

200 cells/μL

50 cells/μL

200 cells/μL

135.

Autoimmune diseases are disorders in which the immune system fails to distinguish ____________ from foreign ones.

self-immunoglobulins

self-antibodies

self-antigens

self-interleukins

self-complement proteins

self-antigens

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