PCOM Anatomy 1: Set II for Quiz 2 - Bones & Joints

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What is the weight bearing structure in compact bone?

Lamella

What is the structure of the lamella?

Concentric rings mainly composed of collagen

What connects the blood and nerve supply in the periosteum to the Haversian canal?

Volkmann's canals

Where are the osteocytes contained?

Lacunae

What connects the lacunae?

canaliculi

What is the main microscopic structural element of spongy bone?

Trabeculae - "little beams"

What is the structural function of trabeculae?

They align themselves against lines of stress to resist stress

What are the four organic components of bone?

osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes, and osteoid

What is the unmineralized bone matrix called?

osteoid

What are the inorganic components of bone?

mineral salts, mainly calcium phosphates

What is the main function of the inorganic components of bone?

hardness and resistance to compression

What are the two types of bone marrow?

red marrow (hematopoeitic) and yellow marrow

Where is red marrow found?

Between the trabeculae of spongy bone

Where is yellow marrow found?

In the medullary canal of long bone

What is the inner layer of the periosteum?

the osteogenic layer

What are nutrient foramina?

The path by which the periosteum is supplied with nerve fibers, blood and lymph vessels

What is the outer layer of the periosteum?

a fibrous layer of dense connective tissue

What are the four classifications of bone shape?

flat, long, short, irregular

Describe flat bones

thin, flattened and a bit curved

Describe long bones

longer than they are wide

Describe short bones

cube shaped; bones that form between tendons

Describe irregular bones

bones with complicated shapes

What is the blood supply of long bones?

diaphyseal nutrient artery; metaphyseal and epiphysial arteries; periosteal arteries

What is the blood supply of irregular, short, and flat bones?

periosteal arteries and nutrient arteries feeding the medullary bone

What is bone homeostasis?

The process by which Ca is stored and removed for use from bones

What is the hormonal mechanism for the storage of Ca?

When Ca increases in the blood, the thyroid produces calcitonin to stimulate calcium salt deposits

What is the hormonal mechanism for the resorption of Ca?

When Ca falls in the blood, the parathyroid produces PTH which signals the osteoclasts to breakdown the bone matrix, releasing CA into the blood

Where is red marrow found?

in the diploe of flat bones and the head of the femur and humerus in adults

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