Chapter 6: The Skeletal System

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Parts of chapter 6 that focuses on: Structure of Bone, Bone Formation, and Division of the Skeletal System

Function of Skeletal System: Support

Provides a structural framework for the body by supporting soft tissues and providing points of attachment for the for the tendons of most skeletal muscles

Function of Skeletal System: Protection

Protection of many internal organs from injury

Function of Skeletal System: Assistance in Movement

Work with muscles to produce movement

Function of Skeletal System: Mineral Homeostasis

Release of minerals into blood to maintain critical mineral homeostasis

Function of Skeletal System: Blood Cell Production

Produces blood cells

Red Bone Marrow

Within certain bones, a connective tissue that consists of developing blood cells, adipocytes, fibroblasts, and macrophages; present in develpoing bones of the fetus and in some adult bones, and ends of the arm bones and thigh bones

Hemopoiesis

produces red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets

Function of Skeletal System: Triglyceride Storage

Store triglycerides

Yellow Bone Marrow

Consists of mainly adipose cells and also contains a few blood cells; changes from red to yellow bone marrow with age

Long Bones

Greater in length than width; usually somewhat curved for strength; Include: thigh(femur), leg(tibia and fibula), arm(humerus), forearm(ulna and radius), and fingers and toes(phalanges)

Short Bones

Almost cube shaped; nearly equal in in length and width; Include: most wrist and ankle bones

Flat Bones

thin; affords significant protection and provides extensive surfaces for muscle attachment; Includes: cranial bones, sternum(breastbone), ribs, and scapulae(shoulder blades)

Irregular Bones

have complex shapes; cannot be grouped into any specific category; Includes: vertebrae and some facial bones

Diaphysis

the bone's body: the long cylindrical, main portion of the bone

Epiphyses

the distal and proximal ends of the bone

Megaphyses

regions where the diaphysis joins the epiphyses

Epiphyseal plate (growth plate)

layer of hyaline cartilage that allows the diaphysis of the bone to grow in length; found only in growing bones

Epiphyseal Line

When bone growth in length stops, the cartilage in the epiphyseal plate is replaced by bone and resulting in a bony structure

Articular Cartilage

a thin layer of hayline cartilage covers part of the epiphysis where the bone forms a joint with another bone; reduces friction and absorbs shock at freely moveable joints

Periosteum

a tough sheath of dence irregular connective tissue that surronds the bone surface wherever it is not covered by articular cartilage; contains bone forming cells that allow bone to grow in diameter or thickness but not in length; Function: protects the bone, assists in fracture repair, helps nourish bone tissue, and acts as an attachment point for ligaments and tendons

Medullary Cavity (Marrow Cavity)

a hollow, cylindrical space within the diaphysis that contains fatty yellow bone marrow in adults

Endosteum

membrane that lines the medullary cavity

Osseous Tissue (Bone)

the major structural and supportive connective tissue of the body; forms the rigid part of the bone organs that make up the skeletal system.

Calcification

initiated by osteoblasts

Tensile Strength

resistance to being stretched of torn apart

Osteogenic Cell

unspecialized stem cells derived from mesenchyme; only bone cells to undergo cell division; found among the inner portion of the periosteum, in the endosteum, and in the canals within bone that contain blood vessels

Mesenchyme

tissue from which almost all connective tissues are formed

Osteoblasts

Bone building cells; synthesize and secrete collagen fibers and other organic components needed to build the extracellular matrix of bone tissue; surrond themselves in extracellular matrix, becoming trapped in their secretions, forming osteocytes

Blasts

secrete extracellular matrix

Osteocytes

formed form osteoblasts; mature bone cells; the main cells in bone tissue

Cytes

maintain the tissue

Osteoclasts

huge cells derived from the fusion if as many as 50 monocytes and are concentraded in the endosteum; release powerful lysosomal enzymes and acids that digest the protein and mineral components of the bone extracellular maxrix

Resorption

Part of the normal development, growth, maintenance, and repair of bone

Clasts

break down extracellular matrix

Compact Bone Tissue

bone tissue that contains few spaces between osteons; forms the external portion of all bones and the bulk of the diaphysis of long bones

Osteons (Haversian Systems)

basic unit of structure in adult compact bone, consisting of a central canal

Haversian (Central) Canal

a channel that contains blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic vessels

Concentric Lamellae

rings of hard, calcified extracellular matrix that resembles the growth rings of a tree

Lacunae

Small spaces between the lamellae that contain ostercytes

Canaliculi

extending from all directions from the lacunae, small tiny channels filled with extracellular fluid; connect lacunae with one another and with central canals

Perforating (Volkman's) Canals

connect with those of the medullary cavity, periosteum, and haversian canals

Compact Bone

Strongest type of bone tissue; provides protection and support and resists the stresses produced by weight and movement

Spongy Bone Tissue

does not contain osteons; consists of units called trabeculae; makes up most of the bone tissue of short, flat and irregularly shaped bones

Trabeculae

an irregular latticework of thin columns of bone

Ossification

process by witch bone forms

Intramembranous Ossification

bone forms directly within mesenchyme arranged in sheetelike layers that resemble membranes;the simpler method of bone formation

Ossification Center

cite where bone develops; mesenchymal cells cluster together and differentiate into osteogenic cells then into osteoblasts

Endochondiral Ossification

bone forms within hayline cartilage that develops from mesenchyme; the more complex method of bone formation; the replacement of cartilage by bone

Cartilage model

formed from chrondroblasts that secrete cartilage extracellular matrix

Perisoteum

a tough fiberous connecitve tissue membrane that covers the outside of the diaphysis; anchored firmly to the outside of the bone on all surfaces except articular cartilage.

Primary Ossification Center

a region where bone tissue will replace most of the cartilage

Secondary Ossification Center

develop around the time of birth; bone formation is similar to that in primary ossification centers except that spongy bone remains in the interior of the epiphyses; proceeds outward from the center of the epiphysis toward the outer surface of the bone

Articular Cartilage

hyaline cartilage that covers the epiphyses

Epiphyseal (growth) Plate

responsible for the lengthwise growth of long bones

Bone Remodeling

the ongoing replacement of old bone tissue by new bone tissue; also removes injured bone, replacing it with new bone tissue; may be triggered by factors like exercise, and changes in diet

Bone Resorption

the removal of minerals and collagen fibers from bone by osteoclasts

Bone Deposition

the addition of minerals and collagen fibers to bone by osteoblasts

Spurs

thick bumps that form if too much mineral material is deposited in the bone; interfere with movement at joints

Fracture

any break in a bone

Partial Fracture

an incomplete break across the bone, like a crack

Complete Fracture

a complete break across the bone; the bone is broken into two or more pieces

Closed (Simple) Fracture

fractured bone does not break through the skin

Open (Compound) Fracture

he broken ends of the bone protrude through the skin

Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)

most important hormone that regulates Ca²⁺ exchange between bone and blood, secreted by the parathyroid glands

Calcitonin (CT)

another hormone involved in calcium homeostasis

Demineralization

Loss of bone minerals

Axial Skeleton

Consists of 80 bones; consists of the bones that lie around the longitudinal axis of the human body

Axis

an imaginary line that runs through the body's center of gravity from the head to the space between the feet

Appendicular Skeleton

consists of 126 bones; contains the bones of the upper and lower limbs plus the bone groups called girdles

Girdles

connect the limbs to the axial skeleton

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