Psychology Themes & Variations Ch 1

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Wilhelm Wundt

The person responsible for establishing psychology as an independent discipline with its own subject matter is:

She was denied a Ph.D. from Harvard University

What happened to Mary Whiton Calkins, who was one of the early women in psychology and past president of the American Psychological Association?


The School of psychology that suggests psychologists study only what can be objectively observed is


Which core psychological research area is primarily devoted to the study of such as memory, problem solving, and thinking?


Evolutionary psychology examines _____ processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations

Phsyiological Psychology

Which of the following areas of research in psychology is concerned with understanding the role of the endocrine system in the regulation of behavior?

Clinical Psychology

The most widely practiced professional specialty in psychology is:


The idea that knowledge should be acquired through observation is referred to as

People have a basic need to fulfill their potential for personal growth

Both Rogers and Maslow believe

The Unconsciousness

Within academic psychology, Freud's ideas initially encountered resistance because he emphasized

Attending Class Regularly

According to research findings, which of the following has been found to be associated with higher grades?

Events are governed by some lawful order

The scientific approach assumes that:


Youmans and Jee(2007) found in a study "Fudging the numbers" that the use of chocolate had an effect on students' ratings of teachers' instruction. In their study the students' ratings of instruction (completion of a rating form) was the ___ variable


The school of psychology that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, and suggests that we have a drive for personal growth is:


During World War II, many academic psychologists were pressed into service, mainly as:

Shaping behavior by reinforcement

Which of the following would be least likely to be studied by a cognitive psychologist?


A tendency to view one's own group as superior to others and as the standard for judging the worth of foreign ways is called

Colleges and universities

According to your textbook, the work settings for approximately 28% of psychologists are

Social Psychology

Dr. Somers studies psychological topics such as attitude formation and change and how groups influence people's behavior. Which of the following best categorizes Dr. Somers' research specialization?

They consistently apply the scientific method

Which of the following approaches do researchers in psychology take to address the fact that our experiences of the world are highly subjective?

Behavior Modification

The idea that you should reward yourself for achieving study goals is based on the concept of

Be able to identify and remember the most important points from a lecture

Research findings suggest that when students engage in attentive note taking, they are more likely to:

Remembering locations

Based on an evolutionary analysis of spatial skills, you should predict that Jill will be better than Jack at


IQ score, age, weight, GPA, and income are all examples of:

A Hypothesis

If you believe that increasing levels of anxiety are associated with drug abuse, you have just formulated:

Dependent Variable

A researcher wants to see if a protein-enriched diet will enhance the maze-running performance of rats. One group of rats is fed the high-protein diet for the duration of the study; the other group continues to receive ordinary rat chow.In this experiment, the rats; maze-running performance is the:

The artificial, contrived situations in which experiments are often conducted

One of the disadvantages of the experimental method is:

Case study method of research

If you interviewed a person over a period of time to understand that person to the greatest degree possible, you would be using the:

The amount of variability in a data set

The standard deviation is a measure of:

A negative correlation between the two variables

An interest rates increase, house sales decline, indicating:

Overweight individuals tend to snore more than underweight individuals

Dr. Redding has found a correlation of +0.65 between snoring and weight. This indicates that:

its composition is similar to the composition of the population

A sample is representative if

the subjects' expectations about treatment

Placebos are used in research to control for

Socially desirable responding

The tendency for survey subjects to provide answers that place them in a favorable light is referred to as:

experimenter bias

The fact that many times researches unintentionally influence the outcome of their studies implies the existence of:

A concise summary of the entire article

The abstract of a journal article provides

Can be distorted by reporting biases

Individuals who think critically do not rely on anecdotal evidence because this type of evidence:


The basic links that permit communications within the nervous system are the

Myelin Sheath

The insulating material that encases some axons is referred to as the

-70 millivolts

The electrical charge inside a neuron when it is in its resting state


An impulse moves from one neuron to another through the action of


A chemical substance that mimics the action of a neurotransmitter is known as an

Afferent Fibers

Sensory information is carried from your eyes to your brain by the way of

A Stereotaxic Instrument

The implantation of electrodes in the brains of animals is accomplished through the use of which of the following?

Computerized tomography

The brain imaging method that uses multiple x-rays to generate a picture of a horizontal slice of the brain is


The portion of the human brain that mediates simple reflexes, such as sneezing, coughing, and salivating is the:

Activation of dopamine-releasing neurons

The rewarding effects of electrical stimulation of the brain seem to be mediated

Wernicke's area

The brain structure that controls your ability to understand speech is:

Homozygous for that trait

When the two genes in a specific pair are the same, the individual


The observable characteristics of an individual are referred to as that person's

newborn kittens

The seminal research on critical periods in neural development was conducted in the 1960s on which of the following subjects?

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