most efficient catabolic pathway for the production of ATP in which oxygen is consumed
Adenosine TriPhosphate, the energy currency of the cell... Energy is stored in its bonds
The molcule that is formed when the bond between one of the phosphates of ATP is broken
starting point for metabloic pathways; process of breaking down Gylcose into two pyruvates
substrate level phosphorylation
Forms ATP by adding a phosphate group onto ADP
an electron-carrying molecule that functions in cellular respiration, gives up electrons to the electron transport chain
The three-carbon end product of glycolysis
active transport that gets the pyruvates into the mitochondria and changes the pyruvates into acetyl that then combines to Coenzyme A which then takes the acetyl to the kreb cycle
another name for the link reaction
The removal of one carbon and two oxygen to form CO2
Second major stage of Cellular respiration; pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions
citric acid cycle
another name for the Kreb Cycle
A chemical reaction involving the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another; also called oxidation-reduction reaction.
The potential energy stored in the form of an electrochemical gradient, generated by the pumping of hydrogen ions across biological membranes during chemiosmosis.
process that requires oxygen
An energy-coupling mechanism that uses energy stored in the form of a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane to drive cellular work, such as the synthesis of ATP
electron transport chain
A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.
large protein that uses energy from H+ ions to bind ADP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP
The production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain.
Inner foldings of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electon transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.
The interior of a mitochondrion; The site of the Krebs cycle.
A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain while producing a waste product, such as lactic acid
The conversion of pyruvate to carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol
lactic acid fermentation
The conversion of pyruvate to lactate with no release of carbon dioxide.