What is CBC?
Stands for complete blood count; it is the number of white blood cells, red blood cells, and platlets in one cubic millimeter of blood
Difference between serum and plasma?
The liquid portion of blood is called "serum" if it contains clotting factors like fibrinogen and it is "plasma" if it does not contain clotting factors and is unable to clot.
How does the body measure the number of RBCs present?
The body measures their numbers simply by evaluating the quantity of oxygen being supplied to its tissues. If not enough oxygen is available, then the body sees that as a need for more working RBC's.
What happens if more RBCs are needed quickly?
If more RBC's are needed quickly, then more immature cells (called reticulocytes) are released into the circulation from the bone marrow.
How is PCV measured?
the percentage of the cellular portion relative to the total amount of blood in the tube.. RBCs/Total blood volume
What causes anemia? Symptoms?
Body not getting enough oxygen due to lowerd number of RBCs. In severe anemia, the animal would probably have pale membranes in its mouth and seem weak and tired..
No new reticulocytes being released in response to low oxygen levels. Very serious!
A high PCV might indicate what conditions?
Dehydration, the animal recently travelled to an area of high altitude (less oxygen at higher altitudes, so more RBCs produced in response because body detects there is not enough oxygen), diseases of the lungs, and anything else that might cause the body to detect it is not getting enough oxygen...
When will WBC be lower than normal?
If an animal has been weakened from a prolonged, debilitating disease and in some viral infections.
WBCs are divided into two groups depending on how they absorb stains: ___ (that absorb the stain) and the ___ ( that do not absorb the stain).
Granulocytes include the _____
Macrophages: neutrophils and eosinophils, and the basophils (note: monocytes are also macrophages, but they are NOT granulocytes)
Mature neutrophils vs. nonmature neutrophils
segs (mature--multisegmented, multilobed nucleus) vs. nonseg (immature--nonsegmented, singlelobed nucleus)
What does it mean when total neutrophil numbers are increased?
it is usually a sign of a bacterial infection or some form of extreme stress.
When do eosinophils increase?
when the animal is suffering from an infection with parasites, or has allergies.
When do eosinophil numbers decrease?
In conditions that cause extreme or prolonged stress to the dog or cat,
Where are lymphocytes formed and released from?
They are formed and released from lymphoid tissue such as lymph nodes, spleen, etc.
How do B cells function?
The B cells produce antibodies, which are protein molecules that attach to and thereby destroy invading organisms or other foreign materials and particles.
How do T cells function?
The T cells activate and help other cells destroy viruses and other foreign material.
When lymphocytes numbers decrease it is referred to as a _____
lymphopenia--- frequently noted in the initial stages of infections
2 examples of when lymphopenia occurs?
Beginning stages of parvovirus; Also following use of corticosteroids like prednisone
When do lymphocyte numbers increase?
Prolonged illnesses; when bacterial or viral infections have gone on for a long time or in certain autoimmune diseases.
Functions of monocytes?
Have the ability to eat or engulf foreign material, such as infectious organisms. Secrete various protein molecules that help in the clean up of inflamed and irritated tissue.