a particle that is electrically charged (positive or negative)
a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains to electron to form a negative ion
two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
weak chemical bond formed by the attraction of positively charged hydrogen atoms to other negatively charged atoms
a chemical reaction in which two or more molecules combine to produce water or another simple molecule
a chemical reaction in which water reacts with a compound to produce other compounds
A functional group present in organic acids and consisting of a single carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a hydroxyl group.
Negative non-covalent force; hydrophobic side chains in aqueous solution induces formation of structured water
polar covalent bond
A covalent bond between atoms that differ in electronegativity. The shared electrons are pulled closer to the more electronegative atom, making it slightly negative and the other atom slightly positive.
A functional group that consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms; can act as a base in solution, accepting a hydrogen ion and acquiring a charge of +1.
A functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom joined to an oxygen atom by a polar covalent bond. Molecules possessing this group are soluble in water and are called alcohols.