Chapter 15: Secession and the Civil War

30 terms by wkgrant78 

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Name the first state to secede in 1860

South Carolina

Describe how the various groups of southerners felt about secession

- South Carolinians justified seceding by charging that a "sectional party" had elected a president "whose opinions & purposes are hostile to slavery"
- other states in the Cotton Kingdom had similar outrage over Lincoln's election but less certainty about how to respond
- cooperationists believed slave states should secede as a unit
- others advocated immediate secession by each state individually

Explain the geographic & philosophic tenets of the southern secessionist movements

- GA, LA, TX - cooperationists wanted to delay seceding in hopes of extorting major concessions from the North
- upper South - moderate Unionist element that had ties to the northern economy were more willing to seek a sectional compromise
- lower South - unwilling to compromise

Characterize in political terms the Confederate government leaders

- relatively moderate leaders

Describe the differences in the Confederate Constitution from the US Constitution

the central government was denied the authority to:
- impose protective tariffs
- subsidize internal improvements
- interfere w/ slavery in the states and was required to pass laws protecting slavery in the territories

Explain the parts & results of the Crittenden Compromise of 1861

Parts:
- advocated extending Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific to guarantee the protection of slavery in the SW territories & in territories south of line that might be acquired
- federal compensation to the owners of escaped slaves
- constitutional amendment forever prohibiting the federal government from abolishing/regulating slavery
Results:
- Lincoln and Congress rejected compromise
- the war began

Discuss how the Civil War began militarily

- Confederate Army attacked Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor
- after 2 days the Union forces surrendered

Describe the reaction of the Upper South to the coming of the Civil War

- VA, AR, TN, NC reversed decision of rejecting secession & joined the Confederacy - Lincoln's call for support to "coerce" other southern states made them choose sides

Describe the reaction of the North to the coming of the Civil War

- the firing on Ft Sumter evoked strong feelings of patriotism, unity & dedication to the Union

Explain the reaction of the Border States to the coming of the Civil War

- MD, DE, KY & MO proclaimed neutrality

List the major northern advantages in the Civil War

- large population, industrial capacity & railroad mileage

List the major southern advantages in the Civil War

- armies faced an easier task - only had to defend its own territory
- faced less serious supply problems
- greater capacity to choose time & place of combat
- on familiar terrain
- sympathetic civilian population

Explain the major portions of Winfield Scott's Anaconda Plan

- the North would squeeze the South into submission by blocking the southern coasts, seizing control of the Mississippi River cutting off supplies of food & essentials

Describe how the North & South acquired manpower for their armies

- initially more volunteers than could be armed & clothed
- later a draft was required to recruit men

List the major southern weaknesses in the Civil War

- southern economy was much less adaptable
- depended on outside world for much of their manufactured goods
- had to rely on government sponsored cash programs
- agriculture could not support troops/shortage of food
- inadequate internal transportation system
- Confederate soldiers were increasingly undernourished
- lacked financing

Compare Lincoln & Davis as leaders both militarily & politically

Lincoln:
- bold in assuming new executive powers; interfered w/ civil liberties
- "necessity" justified a flexible interpretation of his war powers
- administration showed restraint & tolerated political dissent
- able party leader; accommodating disagreement & encouraging unity & dedication to the cause
- political & public support
Davis:
- less effective war leader; focused all attention on war, passed up able generals for incompetent personal favorite
- left policy making to Confederate Congress
- ignored problems on the home front & deteriorating economy
- lost political & popular support
- unorganized party leader & had no help mobilizing public support

Name Jefferson Davis' major southern opponents

- state governors
- confederate Congress members

Name Winfield Scott's successor as Commanding General of the US Army

- George McClellan

Describe the western campaigns in 1862

- Grant captured forts Henry & Donelson (U)
- Battle of Shiloh - Buell (U), Johnston (C) & Beauregard (C)
- Farragut & Union Navy captured the port of New Orleans, then Vicksburg - (U)
Union dominance

Describe the eastern campaigns in 1862

- McClellan took Yorktown (U)
- Jackson Valley - Union defeated along Shenandoah Valley (C)
- Lee defeated McClellan at Seven Days' Battle (C)
- Jackson defeated Pope & McClellan moving on Richmond (C)
- Lee won near Bull Run (C)
- Pope retreats to defend Washington
- Lee vs McClellan at Antietam, Lee retreats (U)
- Lee defeats Ambrose Burnside at Fredericksburg (C)
Confederate dominance

Discuss the southern diplomatic strategy in 1861 & 1862

- use the South's cotton to lure England & France to intervene on Confederate side
- gain "belligerent" status to keep American ships of the sea
- failed to gain full recognition of the Confederacy from either England or France

Explain why Lincoln was hesitant to abolish slavery

- fear of alienating Unionist elements in border slave states
- preferred a gradual, compensated form of emancipation
- aware of strong racial prejudice of most whites in both the North & the South
- pessimistic about equality for blacks in the US

Discuss the results of the Emancipation Proclamation

- gave Confederate states 100 days to give up the struggle w/o losing their slaves
- all slaves in areas under Confederate control were freed
- authorized the enlistment of freed slaves in the Union Army
- did not immediately free a single slave
- did commit the Union to the abolition of slavery as a war aim
- accelerated the breakdown of slavery as a labor system

Name the turning point of the Civil War in the west in 1863

- Union victory at Vicksburg

Name the turning point of the Civil War in the east in 1863

- Union victory at Gettysburg

Name the commander of the Union Army in the March to the Sea

- William T. Sherman

Name the candidates & results of the presidential election of 1864

- Abraham Lincoln (Rep) *WINNER*
- General McClellan (Dem)

Name the place where General Robert E. Lee surrendered in 1865

- Appomattox Courthouse, VA

Explain the constitutional issues solved by the Civil War

- federal government was supreme over states & had a broad grant of constitutional authority to act on matters affecting "the general welfare"
- broadened definition of federal powers major impact on realm of economic policy
- state sovereignty & strict construction were over, US was a true nation-state with a central government
- states had primary responsibility for most functions of government but could no longer secede or nullify federal law

Explain why the North won the Civil War

- unions ability to organize, mobilize and modernize
- a shift in the relationship between federal government & private enterprise
- took limited government & changed it into an activist state that promoted & subsidized the efforts of the economically ambitious & industrious

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set