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Reflex

An automatic response to a stimulus

Reflex arc

The wiring of a particular reflex

Innate reflex

Reflexive response present at birth

Learned reflex

Reflex acquired through experience

Monosynaptic reflex

Simplest reflex arc in which a sensory neuron synapses directly on a motor neuron that acts as the processing center

Polysynaptic reflex

Reflex that has at least one interneuron placed between the sensory afferent and the motor efferent, thus having a longer delay between stimulus and response

Somatic reflex

Reflex which controls skeletal muscle contractions

Visceral reflex

Controls the activities of smooth and cardiac muscles and glands, including eyes

Cranial reflexes

Reflexes processed in the brain

Spinal reflexes

Simple, automatic behaviors that are processed in the spinal cord.

Ipsilateral reflex

When a stimulus occurs on one side of the body and the reflex action occurs on the same side of the stimulus

Contralateral reflex

When a stimulus occurs on one side of the body and the reflex action occurs on the opposite side of the stimulus

Stretch reflex

Purpose: To prevent injury from over stretching a muscle
Result: Contraction of the muscle that is stretched
Sensed by muscle spindles
Monosynaptic, ipsilateral, spinal, somatic

Tendon reflex

Purpose: to prevent damage from development of too much tension in a muscle
Result: Inhibition of the muscle that is contracting
Sensed by Golgi tendon organ
Polysynaptic, ipsilateral, spinal, somatic

Flexor reflex

Purpose: to protect the body from further injury
Result: flexion of the affected limb
Sensed by nociceptors
Polysynaptic, ipsilateral, spinal, and somatic

Crossed Extensor reflex

Purpose: to stabilize the body position when a painful stimulus results in flexion of an opposite limb (paired with flexor reflex)
Results in extension of the opposite limb
Sensed by nociceptors
Polysynaptic, contralateral, spinal, somatic

Excitatory/Inhibitory neurons

Excitatory - refers to enhancing nervous impulse
Inhibitory - refers to reducing nervous impulse
(Both may act to integrate or moderate signals between neurons.)

Intrafusal Fibers

Intra- Located on the inner part of the muscle, are the sensory fibers
Extra- Part of muscle spindle that make motor fibers that develop tension

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